Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

0 235


ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a psychological condition that involves mainly three persistent problems:

  • Difficulty in paying attention
  • Hyperactivity
  • Impulsive behaviour

This condition presents predominantly in children but may continue into adulthood. Unstable relationships, poor work or academic performances and disturbed mental health are common adverse effects of ADHD.


The exact cause of this health condition is unknown. Following are some known risk-factors:

  • Genetics and Family History
  • Lead exposure as a child
  • Premature birth
  • Alcohol/cigarette/drug use by the mother during pregnancy


In ADHD that continues to adulthood, hyperactivity may diminish, but impulsive and inattentive behaviour remains a problem and may interfere with daily life. Following are some other symptoms:

  • Unorganized methods and daily activities
  • Poor time management skills
  • Poor focus
  • Inability to multitask
  • Impatience and low tolerance
  • Poor planning skills
  • Poor stress and anger management
  • Problems completing tasks

These symptoms are seen as a manifestation of the disease only when they are severe enough to cause disruption and problems in daily lives. Usually, they can be traced back to childhood. Adult ADHD can also commonly co-exist with other mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and learning disabilities.


Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of careful patient history, especially family and childhood history, and ADHD rating scales with thorough psychological evaluations.


A combination of medication and psychological therapy usually has the best results. Medications commonly prescribed for this condition include:

  • Stimulant drugs (methylphenidate, amphetamines)
  • Non-stimulant drugs (atomoxetine)
  • Anti-depressants (bupropion)

Different types of psychotherapies that can be utilized include:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
  • Marital counselling
  • Family therapy
You might also like