cervical2 – HTV https://htv.com.pk Tue, 11 Aug 2020 08:15:23 +0000 en-US hourly 1 11 Facts about Vaginal Discharge Women Need to Know https://htv.com.pk/womens-health/11-facts-vaginal-discharge-women-need-know Thu, 12 Apr 2018 12:00:10 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=24111

Vaginal discharge is, quite simply, fluid secretion from the vagina. Most women regularly experience some form a vaginal discharge, in varying amounts, from the onset of puberty through menopause.

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Vaginal discharge is, quite simply, fluid secretion from the vagina. Most women regularly experience some form a vaginal discharge, in varying amounts, from the onset of puberty (7-12 years), through menopause (50+ years). Despite its commonness, the embarrassment that shrouds this topic means that it rarely receives the attention it deserves. Here are a few things that every women needs to know when it comes to vaginal discharge.

1. Why It Exists

Vaginal discharge is one of your body’s ways to keep your vagina healthy and clean. It consists mostly of mucus, which is secreted by the cervix for the purpose of bacter bacteria, some cells of the vaginal walls and water. It is also produced to provide natural lubrication for sexual intercourse.

2. What it is Supposed to Look Like

Healthy vaginal discharge is clear or white, odorless and fluid. Normal discharge does not have any symptoms/ feelings of discomfort. Though the amount of discharge varies significantly between different individuals and between different stages of the menstrual cycle, most women secrete about 4 ml (about one teaspoon) of fluid a day.

3. Don’t Douche!

Many women may try to treat vaginal discharge by douching. This in fact, is unhealthy for your vagina. Douching can remove healthy bacteria that help prevent against infection. It can also lead to a number of other health problems.

4. Use Panty Liners Carefully

Panty liners are a convenient way of dealing with discharge, but they shouldn’t be worn round the clock. Their plastic backing resists air flow, and retains heat and sweat which may lead to bacterial of fungal infections.

5. Discharge Changes throughout the Menstrual Cycle and During Sexual Arousal

The volume of discharge tends to increase drastically during ovulation and sexual arousal. Its texture also tends to become thinner and stretchier. This occurs in order to facilitate the travel of the sperm up to the egg. If you’re wishing to expand your family, pay attention to these changes in discharge as they indicate increased fertility.

It is also normal for clear, watery discharge to occur after exercise.

6. Dark Colored Discharge Contains Blood

This is usually not something to be worried about. It’s perfectly normal for small quantities of blood to be present in discharge, especially after menstruation. If this occurs too often, however, you may want to consult a physician.

7. Discharge is an Important Indication of Vaginal Health

If you experience pain or irritation, or your discharge is clumpy, or strangely colored, chances are you have a vaginal infection. Consult a doctor immediately if this occurs.

8. Birth Control may Affect Discharge

Women on the combined oral contraceptive pill generally experience a change in discharge volume and sometimes texture. In most cases, this is nothing to be worried about.

9. Avoid Using Scented Soaps Down There

Discharge is a natural cleaning mechanism for your vagina. Using scented soaps may upset the ph balance in your vagina. Redbook recommends using a mild baby shampoo when cleaning your vagina and making sure to gently wash between the outer and inner lips, where discharge usually gets stuck.

10. Discharge may be Used in Cancer Detection

Secretions contain small amounts of cervical, vaginal and endometrial cells. Research is currently underway as to how to identify cancerous cells using samples from vaginal discharge.

11. Pubic Hair Is Helpful

Pubic hair plays a role in keeping vaginal discharge away from skin, thereby avoiding irritation. It also serves as a protection against bacteria.

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6 Signs of Labor to Look Out For https://htv.com.pk/moms/6-signs-labor-look Mon, 04 Dec 2017 12:14:51 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=30004

Labor manifests itself differently for different women. Some women feel distinct symptoms of labor while others do not. Knowing what to expect can help ensure that the patient gets to the hospital well in time in order to minimize complications. Although there is no sure fire way of predicting the exact time labor pains will […]

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Labor manifests itself differently for different women. Some women feel distinct symptoms of labor while others do not. Knowing what to expect can help ensure that the patient gets to the hospital well in time in order to minimize complications. Although there is no sure fire way of predicting the exact time labor pains will begin, there are several hormonal and physical changes that mark the onset of labor, and recognizing these changes can be critical. As labor time approaches many women report feeling a sudden burst of energy accompanied by a strong urge to get things in order and ready for the baby. This is called the nesting instinct, which typically kicks in a few weeks or days prior to delivery. The following signs of labor are a fairly reliable indicators that labor will commence in a few weeks or days:

Lightening

As labor time approaches the baby settles or lowers into the pelvis in a process called lightening. As that happens the pressure on the diaphragm decreases making breathing slightly easier, however, pressure on the bladder increases, and that may lead to an increase in frequency of urination.

Loss of Mucus Plug

Although not all women experience this sign, many do. During pregnancy a thick plug of mucus forms over the cervical opening to protect against intrusion of bacteria. As the cervix begins to thin and relax in preparation for delivery, this ‘plug’ will be expelled as stringy mucus that may or may not be tinged with blood. This bloody show is a sure sign that delivery is to be expected within a few days if not a few hours.

Rupture of Membranes

The amniotic fluid may burst forth in a sudden gush or it may begin to leak gradually. The fluid is odorless and that helps distinguish it from urine. Once the membranes are ruptured health officials need to be contacted immediately, and caution needs to be exercised to avoid getting any bacteria in the vagina. This means abstinence from intercourse and tampon use until a physician has been seen. If the discharge is greenish in color, or has a foul odor, the doctor needs to be notified as that may be an indicator of an infection in the uterus that requires immediate treatment.

Effacement

In preparation for delivery the cervix begins to thin and stretch. It is measured in percentages. Effacement can be evaluated by an exam by the health care official, typically conducted weekly once the last month of pregnancy begins.

Dilation of Cervix

The cervix begins to dilate to prepare for labor. Dilation is measured in centimeters and cannot be measured personally. It requires an exam by a healthcare official. 10 cm means fully dilated.

Uterine Contractions

Experiencing regular uterine contractions is the most obvious indication of the onset of labor. They can feel like menstrual cramps or intermittent lower back pain at regular intervals. They may start off at longer intervals up to 30 minutes apart, however frequency and intensity progressively increases as time goes on. Once contractions are experienced every five minutes it is time to get to a hospital.

Sources:

William’s Obstetrics Twenty-Second Ed. Cunningham, F. Gary, et al, Ch. 17.
http://www.emedicine.com/
“Signs of Labor.” American Pregnancy Association, 10 Aug. 2017, americanpregnancy.org/labor-and-birth/signs-of-labor/.
https://www.babycenter.com/0_signs-of-labor_181.bc

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Five reasons why green tea is the ultimate answer to women’s health problems https://htv.com.pk/womens-health/five-reasons-why-green-tea-is-the-ultimate-answer-to-womens-health-problems Thu, 03 Aug 2017 11:49:32 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=9539

While many people use green tea as a form of herbal medicine for weight-loss and digestion,

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While many people use green tea as a form of herbal medicine for weight-loss and digestion, there is so much more that this magic liquid can do which is beneficial for our health.

Here are the five ways in which green tea keeps us fit, especially women:

Increases Potency

Derived from camellia sinensis, green tea has been proved beneficial in various ways for the treatment and prevention of conditions concerning women. It is rich in polyphenols that are packed with antioxidants and antitumor properties. Epigallocatechin-3-galate (EGCG) is the major active compound found in it which is likely to increase potency. Other compounds include vitamin c and amino acids like L-theanine.

Cures Genital Warts

Very often, genital warts occur in women due to the transmission of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). They can either occur singly, or in clusters. The main reason for them to occur is having sexual intercourse or any skin-to-skin contact with an infected person. It would normally take up to 90 days for them to develop. They are commonly seen in women and are said to increase the risk of bladder infections and cervical cancer. However, experts have suggested that drinking two to three cups of green tea everyday may help in treating the warts. Either that or tea bags may be directly used. They should be kept in simmering for five minutes and then they should be applied directly on the wart after cooling them down. Other ointments of green tea extracts can also be used on prescription.

Fights Alzheimer’s Disease

Amino acids, like L-theanine and caffeine, are also found in it. Though green tea does not contain as much caffeine as coffee, it works as a synergist with L-theanine to improve brain functions. Furthermore, it can delay Alzheimer’s disease by protecting the brain from the formation of beta-amyloid plaques that are thought to cause the disease. The Epigallocatechin galate (EGCG) present in it binds to the beta-amyloid proteins to prevent their formation. Studies have been carried out to prove that MRI Scans of a sample fed with green tea showed a higher brain activity than the sample which had been given a placebo drink. Researchers and scientists are working more on discovering the benefits of green tea to cure Alzheimer’s or other dementia and to improve brain functions.

Prevents Breast Cancer

The predominant polyphenols in green tea have an antioxidant property as mentioned earlier. The prominent of these polyphenols is EGCG and epichatechin 3-gallate (ECG). These polyphenols have the ability to search for and then kill those free radicals that can result in damaging the DNA and hence prevent causing breast cancers. Laboratory studies conducted have also proved that tea catechins have been able to prevent the proliferation of cancerous tumors as well as inhibiting the angiogenesis – which is the process of synthesis of blood vessel to supply and sustain tumors.

Helps Avoid Ovarian Cysts

Green tea may also help in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) due to its ability to produce sex-hormone-binding globulins. An increase in sex-hormone-binding globulins (SHBG) would cause some free testosterone to bind with it, bringing about a reduction in testosterone-related problems in women fighting PCOS. These may include acne, growth in facial hair and loss of scalp hair. Majority of the women fighting PCOS also face obesity and green tea may not only help produce SHBGs but also its thermogenic effect may help to reduce weight.

Having said that, in order to prevent any chronic disease, add a cup of warm green tea to your daily routine. It is also a proven formula for prevention of wrinkles and acne.

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Men face higher risk of cancers linked to HPV https://htv.com.pk/news/men-face-higher-risk-cancers-linked-hpv Mon, 15 Feb 2016 12:43:32 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=16633

Men are twice as likely as women to get cancer of the mouth

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Men are twice as likely as women to get cancer of the mouth and throat linked to the human papillomavirus, or HPV, one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, researchers say.

For men, the risk of HPV-driven cancers of the head and neck rise along with the number of oral sex partners, researchers said Friday at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) annual meeting in the US capital.

Nearly two out of three of these oral cancers in the United States and most western nations are caused by infection with the HPV 16 strain of the virus, and incidence of cancer is on the rise in recent years, said Gypsyamber D’Souza, who teaches epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

Middle aged white men are at particularly high risk compared to other races.

She said her research shows that youths are engaging in oral sex at increasingly young ages, compared to past generations.

“Our research shows that for men, the number of oral sex partners – as that number increases, the risk of an oral HPV infection increases,” she told reporters.

But with women, the number of sexual partners does not appear to raise the risk.

“Comparing men and women with the same number of sexual partners, a man is much more likely to become infected with oral HPV than a woman.”

Furthermore, women who have a greater number of vaginal sex partners appear to face a lower risk of oral HPV infection, she said.

The reason may be that when women are first exposed to HPV vaginally, they mount an immune response that prevents them from getting an oral HPV infection, she said.

But men do not seem to have equally robust immune responses.

“Men are not only more likely to be infected with oral HPV infection than women, but our research shows that once you become infected, men are less likely to clear this infection than women, further contributing for the cancer risk.”HPV

HPV infection is quite common, and most people clear the virus within a year or two, she said.

In some cases, however, HPV does not go away and can lead to cellular changes in the mouth and throat, which eventually become cancerous.

Oral sex may raise the risk of head and neck cancer by 22%, according to a study published January in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Jama).

This type of cancer has risen 225% in the last two decades.

The US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) urges HPV vaccination for all pre-teen boys and girls so they can be protected against the infection before they become sexually active.

Source: AFP

 

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HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) https://htv.com.pk/health/hpv-human-papilloma-virus Tue, 18 Nov 2014 18:19:38 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=4115 HPV

The genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus, which spans to more than 100 different strains, or types, of the virus

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HPV

The genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus, which spans to more than 100 different strains, or types, of the virus. It is spread through sexual contact. Some strains can cause changes in the cells of the cervix in women as well as the mouth and throat in both men and women. These changes in cells cause cancers in these locations, and thus these are the high risk types of HPV. Still, other types of HPV can cause genital warts in both males and females.  There is no cure for the HPV infection, but some of the problems it causes can be treated. The preventative measure is the HPV vaccine, which can stop it from invading the body.

If it is given to an individual before he or she is exposed to the virus, the HPV vaccine can prevent the most common types of the virus that cause cervical cancer and genital warts. The vaccine can protect the individual for a very long time, but it is not a substitute for cervical cancer screening. Women should still get regular Pap smear tests.

Who Should Get the Vaccine and When?

The HPV vaccine is a series of vaccines given in 3-doses: the first dose should be given at age 11 or 12 years for both females and males. The second dose should be given one month after dose 1, and the third dose should be given 6 months after dose 1.

The HPV infection is easily acquired, even with only one sex partner, which is why it is extremely important to get the HPV vaccine before any sexual contact takes place. Also, the response is better at a younger age than at older ages.

The vaccination is recommended for persons who are immunocompromised (where their immune systems are weakened). Those with HIV infections are also advised to get an HPV vaccination, at any age for those who did not get any or all doses when they were younger.

Who Should Not Get Vaccinated

Those individuals who have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any component of the HPV vaccine, or to a previous dose of the vaccine, should not receive any further vaccinations for HPV. Tell your doctor if you have any severe allergies, including allergies to latex.

Currently, the HPV vaccine is not recommended for women during their pregnancy. If you have received your first or second dose before pregnancy, the second or third dose should be delayed until completion of pregnancy. However, even if you have received the HPV vaccine, you should not terminate the pregnancy. The long-term effects on the fetus are not known, but research indicates no effects are anticipated.

People who are mildly ill with a disease when a dose of the HPV vaccine is planned can still be vaccinated. However, those who have a moderate or severe acute illness should wait until they are better.

What Are the Risks From This Vaccine?

This HPV vaccine has been in use around the world for several years and has been very safe. However, any medicine could possibly cause a serious problem, especially a severe allergic reaction. The risk of any vaccine causing a serious injury, or death, is extremely small. Life-threatening allergic reactions from vaccines are rare. If they do occur, it would be within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination. Immediately go to the doctor if you do get an allergic reaction.

Although life-threatening allergic reactions are rare, there are some mild to moderate problems that might occur with the HPV vaccine. These are not life-threatening, do not last long and usually go away on their own. You might experience pain, redness or swelling where the shot was received. Other mild reactions include, fever of 37.5 centigrade or higher, headache or fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal, muscle or joint pain.

Brief fainting spells and related symptoms can happen after any medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes after vaccination can help prevent can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by falls. Again, these are not life-threatening and will go away on their own.

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