brain – HTV https://htv.com.pk Wed, 25 Nov 2020 12:47:21 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Stroke https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/stroke https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/stroke#respond Tue, 24 Jul 2018 07:49:18 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38151

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Overview

Stroke is a medical crisis in which the blood supply to the brain is cut off or reduced very significantly, so much so that the brain cells become deprived of oxygen and nutrients. After a few minutes of this deprivation, the brain cells begin to die. Since this is such an emergent condition, it must be dealt with as quickly as possible.

Causes

There are two types of strokes:

  1. Ischemic stroke (more common)
  2. Hemorrhagic stroke

The causes of both the types of strokes are completely different.

An Ischemic Stroke is one in which the blood supply, and in turn, nutrients and oxygen reaching the brain are significantly reduced. This can happen when some physical barrier blocks the blood vessel, such as :

  • A thrombus (blood clot formed in the vessel that is blocked)
  • An embolus (blood or fat clot, coming from a region away from the blocked vessel)

A Hemorrhagic Stroke occurs because of excessive bleeding into the brain, which again leads to stasis of blood into that region and in turn, deprivation of fresh blood and oxygen. Hemorrhagic stroke can occur because of one of the following reasons:

Symptoms

It requires some degree of vigilance to observe the signs and symptoms in a person having this condition. These are a few of the signs and symptoms presented by a person having a stroke:

  • Trouble with speaking and understanding speech
  • Paralysis and numbness of the face, arm, or leg
  • Trouble with sight
  • Headache
  • Difficulty in walking

Diagnosis

It is very important to determine the type of stroke a patient is having, in order to decide the best treatment plan to go forward with. Diagnosis of stroke and its type can be made by the following:

  • Proper clinical examination and evaluation
  • Blood tests
  • CT scan of the brain
  • MRI of the brain
  • Carotid Ultrasound
  • Cerebral angiogram
  • Echocardiogram (to detect if the clot came from the heart)

Treatment

  • I/V injection of Tissue plasminogen activator
  • Removal of clot with a stent retriever
  • Carotid endarterectomy
  • Surgical clipping

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Paralysis (Stroke) https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/paralysis-stroke https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/paralysis-stroke#respond Mon, 23 Jul 2018 10:34:27 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38038

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Overview

When a part of the brain is receiving less or no blood, the cells of that portion are not receiving oxygen necessary for survival. This leads to the cells beginning to die a few minutes are the blood supply stops. This process is called a stroke. When a stroke occurs in part of the brain responsible for controlling the muscles of the limbs (that allow movement), the patient becomes paralyzed.

Causes

The main cause of paralysis is a stroke. The following are causes of a stroke:

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of this disease depend upon which muscle is paralyzed. Some of them can be listed as:

  • Inability to move one limb
  • Inability to move 2 limbs
  • Inability to move all 4 limbs
  • Inability to walk

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of paralysis is made by symptoms.

Treatment

Treatment of paralysis is done once the patient has received treatment for stroke. It is done by physiotherapy, as there is no way to reverse the cell death caused by a stroke, so the only method is to return as much function as possible to the limb via physiotherapy.

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Parkinson’s Disease https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/parkinsons-disease https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/parkinsons-disease#respond Mon, 23 Jul 2018 09:42:30 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38077

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Overview

Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disease that gradually increases with time and affects the patient’s movement. It starts gradually and slowly worsens with time. The disease is associated with problems in the basal ganglia of the brain. Even though the disease is progressive, and has no cure, it can be managed significantly with medications.

Causes

Parkinson’s occurs when the levels of dopamine, in the human brain, decrease. This decreased dopamine leads to the involuntary movements exhibited in Parkinson’s.

The dopamine levels decrease because the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for the production of this dopamine, degenerate. Two important causes lead to this degeneration of dopamine producing neurons:

  1. Genes
  2. Environmental factors

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s can be listed as follows:

  • Tremors
  • Slowed down movements
  • Expressionless face
  • Rigid muscles
  • Changes in speech (Becomes slurred or soft)
  • Impaired posture
  • Impaired balance
  • Loss of arm swing while walking

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Parkinson’s is made entirely clinically, with signs and symptoms extracted from the patient’s detailed history, and physical and neurological examination. This is because there is no specific test to confirm the diagnosis of Parkinson’s.

Treatment

The treatment is not curative but aimed at minimizing the signs and symptoms and slowing the progress of the disease. This is done by some different medications, some of which are listed below:

  • Carbidopa-Levodopa
  • Dopamine agonist
  • MAO-B inhibitors
  • Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors
  • Anticholinergics
  • Amantadine

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Nervous System Disorders https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/nervous-system-disorders https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/nervous-system-disorders#respond Thu, 28 Jun 2018 06:33:25 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37395

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Overview

The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, cranial, and peripheral nerves. Disorders that affect any of these structures lead to a variety of mental, and/or physical symptoms. Nervous system disorders are divided into the following categories:

  • Vascular disorders – Stroke, Transient ischemic attack, Hemorrhage
  • Infections – Meningitis, Encephalitis, Polio
  • Structural disorders – Cervical spondylosis, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Functional disorders – Headache, Dizziness, Epilepsy
  • Degenerative disorders – Parkinson’s diseases, Alzheimer’s disease

Causes

There is a extensive range of causes that can lead to nervous system disorders, but the more common ones are listed below:

Symptoms

Nervous system disorders can present with the following symptoms:

  • Persistent or sudden onset of a headache
  • A headache that changes or is different from the ones you usually get
  • Loss of feeling
  • Tingling
  • Weakness or loss of muscle strength
  • Loss of sight or double vision
  • Memory loss
  • Impaired mental ability
  • Lack of coordination of movements
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Tremors and seizures
  • Back pain which radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body
  • Muscle wasting
  • Slurred speech
  • Sudden language impairment (inability to speak, or comprehend speech)

Diagnosis

The following tests are important diagnostic tools for identifying nervous system disorders:

  • MRI brain
  • CT scan brain
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
  • Electromyogram (EMG)
  • PET scan
  • Angiogram
  • Evoked potentials
  • Myelogram

Treatment

Nervous system disorders can be treated with physiotherapy, medications, and surgery.

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Keeping Busy Is Actually Good For Your Brain, Says Study https://htv.com.pk/news/keeping-busy-actually-good-brain-says-study Sat, 02 Jul 2016 11:21:13 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=20287

If you're having a hectic day with too much to do, then science could have

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If you’re having a hectic day with too much to do, then science could have some good news for you, with a new study finding that older adults with busy lifestyles show better cognitive function than their less busy peers.

The study, by the University of Texas at Dallas, looked at 330 healthy participants aged between 50 and 89 as part of the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, one of the most in-depth and comprehensive studies of age-related brain function in healthy adults in the USA.

Participants were all surveyed about their daily lifestyle and underwent neuropsychological testing to measure their cognitive performance.

The results showed that at all the ages participating a busy daily lifestyle was associated with improved working memory, reasoning, and vocabulary, and a superior processing speed of the brain.

There was also a particularly strong association between a busy lifestyle and an improved episodic memory — the ability to remember specific events in the past.

The results were also seen regardless of the participants’ education.

“Our findings offer encouragement to maintain active, busy lifestyles throughout middle and late adulthood.”

However commenting on the findings Sara Festini, lead author of the study, did warn that the team could not conclude yet that busyness directly improves cognition, and that other factors may also be involved such as individuals who already have better cognitive function seek out a busier lifestyle, or that busyness and cognition reinforce and strengthen each other.

But the team also added that busyness could improve cognitive health by facilitating new learning, with a recent study from the Center for Vital Longevity showing that learning difficult new skills, such as digital photography, or quilting, can boost episodic memory.

Busy people could be improving their cognitive health by exposing themselves to more information in their daily life, and more opportunities to learn, leading the team to conclude that, “Overall, our findings offer encouragement to maintain active, busy lifestyles throughout middle and late adulthood.”

The team also commented that they were surprised so little research has been carried out to examine a possible link between busyness and cognitive function, especially considering how busy modern life can be, and now suggest more research be done in this area.

Source: AFP/Relaxnews

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