Hypertensive Diseases

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Overview

Hypertensive diseases occur as a complication of hypertension. The following are some examples of such diseases:

  • Hypertensive heart disease
  • Hypertensive retinopathy
  • Hypertensive kidney disease

Causes

The main cause of hypertensive diseases is chronically elevated blood pressure.

Symptoms

Hypertension can lead to certain complications which manifest with the following symptoms:

  • Hypertensive heart disease – chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, leg and ankle swelling, persistent cough
  • Hypertensive retinopathy – reduced vision, eye swelling, double vision, headaches
  • Hypertensive kidney disease – loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, itching, confusion, unpleasant taste in mouth, weight loss

Diagnosis

To diagnose hypertensive disease, the patient must have an established diagnosis of high blood pressure (hypertension). Some of the following tests can aid the confirmation of the diagnosis:

  • Hypertensive heart disease – Echocardiography, electrocardiography, coronary angiography, exercise stress test.
  • Hypertensive retinopathy – ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography of retina
  • Hypertensive kidney disease – urine direct report, X-ray KUB, CT scan

Treatment

The main treatment of these complications is to maintain the blood pressure near to normal limits.

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