Eye Health

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Overview

The eye is an extremely sensitive and delicate organs of the body. It is also very important functionally, as it is the most important sense we have. Therefore, it is important to ensure the eye health.

Some of the most common conditions that affect the health of the eye are the following:

  • Conjunctivitis
  • Chalazion/Stye
  • Strabismus
  • Myopia
  • Dry eyes
  • Cataract
  • Glaucoma

Causes

The cause of most eye diseases is not understood clearly, but the causes and risk factors that are understood, are listed below:

  • Conjunctivitis – bacterial or viral infection
  • Chalazion – bacterial infection
  • Strabismus – disorders of the nerves supplying eye muscles
  • Myopia – eye grows too big
  • Dry eyes – decreased production of tears by the lacrimal gland
  • Cataract – aging
  • Glaucoma – increased pressure in the eye

Symptoms

The consequent signs and symptoms are observed with the diseases mentioned above:

  • Conjunctivitis – redness, tearing, itchiness, pus discharge from the eye
  • Chalazion – swelling of the eyelid, usually painless
  • Strabismus – an eye that wanders inward or outward, head tilting, double vision.
  • Myopia – unable to clearly see things that are in the distance, headaches
  • Dry eyes – itchiness, decreased tear production, irritation
  • Cataract – lens becomes opaque; hence vision is obstructed.
  • Glaucoma – visual field defects, headache, eye pain, blurred vision, red eye

Diagnosis

For the diagnosis of eye disease, physical examination is most important. Some of the following examination techniques are usually practiced:

  • Snellen’s chart
  • Slit lamp examination
  • Examination via ophthalmoscope
  • Fundoscopy

Treatment

  • Conjunctivitis – antibiotic eye drops
  • Chalazion/Stye – drainage, surgical removal
  • Strabismus – cover method
  • Myopia – spectacles
  • Dry eyes – lubricating eye drops
  • Cataract – removal of opacified lens
  • Glaucoma – medications, such as prostaglandins, beta blockers, miotic agents, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
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