brain tumor – HTV https://htv.com.pk Fri, 05 Jun 2020 07:00:58 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Brain Cancer https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/brain-cancer https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/brain-cancer#respond Thu, 07 Jun 2018 04:22:53 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37005

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Overview

A brain cancer develops when tumors or brain cells start to grow abnormally. These tumors can either be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They can also arise within the brain (primary) or be a secondary invasion of a tumor elsewhere (secondary). The growth rate of the tumor and its location determines its symptoms, severity, and treatment plans.

Causes

Primary tumors arise when brain cells acquire mutations and start to grow and divide rapidly and without control, eventually forming a mass of abnormal cells. Secondary tumors arise from a cancer at some other location (commonly breast, colon, lung, and skin cancer). Some risk factors associated with brain cancer are:

  • Exposure to radiation
  • Family History
  • Past History of Tumors

Symptoms

Symptoms of a brain tumor are highly variable, depending upon its size, growth rate, and location. Following are some common presentations:

  • Headache
  • Persistent, unexplained nausea and vomiting
  • Deterioration of vision or doubling or vision
  • Sudden onset seizures
  • Speech, hearing, balance or coordination deficits
  • Psychiatric or behavioral changes
  • Loss of movement or sensation

Diagnosis

After a careful clinical assessment and a thorough neurological exam by a neurologist, following tests can be used to diagnose a brain tumor:

  • Imaging: CT, MRI or PET scan
  • Tissue biopsy

It is also important to exclude malignancy in other parts of the body.

Treatment

Treatment can vary upon a variety of factors, including the characteristics of the tumor as well as patient preference. Following are some options:

  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Radiosurgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted drug therapy

Rehabilitation (physical, occupational, or speech therapy) may be required after treatment.

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University graduates face higher brain tumour risk: Study https://htv.com.pk/news/university-graduates-face-higher-brain-tumour-risk-study Tue, 21 Jun 2016 10:35:37 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=20006

People with at least three years of higher education are at greater risk for

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People with at least three years of higher education are at greater risk for cancerous brain tumours than those with no more than nine years of schooling, perplexed researchers said.

“There is a 19 percent increased risk that university-educated men could be diagnosed with glioma,” said Amal Khanolkar, a scientist at the Institute of Child Health in London and lead author of a study in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community.

For women, he said, the risk rose by 23 per cent.

“It was a surprising result which is difficult to explain,” Khanolkar told AFP.

Concretely, the increase in risk is minimal because such brain tumours are rare.

At the lowest level of education, the chances of glioma were reported at five in 3,000. At the other end of the educational spectrum, the odds increased to six in 3,000.

But the question remained as to whether the gap — no matter how small — was real and, if so, what caused it.

Earlier research exploring a possible link between education or social level, on the one hand, and the frequency of brain tumours, on the other, had been inconclusive.

To “put to rest” these conflicting findings, Khanolkar and colleagues at the Karolinska Institute medical university in Stockholm used a new approach.

Rather than comparing a small number of brain tumour patients with healthy individuals, they sifted through the health records of 4.3 million adults tracked by the Swedish public health system from 1993 to 2011.

The researchers distinguished between three kinds of brain tumours — two of them non-cancerous — with different causes.

The strong link between education level and tumour incidence held for all three types, but was strongest for deadly gliomas.

Interestingly, an even higher risk gap was found between low-income manual labourers and high-income men and women who did not work with their hands.

Source: AFP

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