Prostate Cancer

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Overview

Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate gland. This is a small gland in men that is part of their reproductive system. Its main function is to produce a fluid that provides nourishment to the sperm. It is one of the most common types of cancer in men.

Causes

The exact cause of prostate cancer cannot be pinpointed; however, it is mostly caused by abnormal mutations in the DNA of some cells of the prostate gland. The cells with this mutation start to multiply rapidly, faster than the surrounding normal cells, and hence they form a mass. Some of these abnormal cells can break off from the mass and travel to other organs via the blood and embed there and lead to a new mass formation there.

Symptoms

In the early stages, prostate cancer does not produce much symptoms, however as the disease progresses, the following signs and symptoms can appear:

  • Difficulty urinating
  • Blood in semen
  • Deceased pressure in the urine stream
  • Discomfort in the pelvic region
  • Erectile dysfunction

Diagnosis

The following tests are performed in order to screen and diagnose prostate cancer, and determine the stage of cancer:

  • Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)
  • Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test
  • Ultrasound
  • Prostate tissue biopsy
  • MRI fusion
  • Bone scan
  • CT scan
  • PET scan

Treatment

Treatment depends on the stage of cancer, some of the following treatment modalities are implied to treat and manage cancer:

  • Surgical removal of the prostate gland
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Cryotherapy
  • Hormone therapy
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