Musculoskeletal Disorders

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Overview

Musculoskeletal disorders affect the bones, joints, and muscles. Any major area of the musculoskeletal system may be involved, including, the neck, wrist, shoulder, back, leg, knee, hip, and foot. Some of the most common musculoskeletal disorders are listed below:

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Tendinitis
  • Arthritis
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Bone fractures
  • Muscle dystrophies

Causes

There is a range of causes that can lead to musculoskeletal disorders, some of which are listed as follows:

  • Hereditary
  • Infection
  • Occupational stress on the musculoskeletal system
  • Senility
  • Lifting very heavy weights
  • Maintaining poor posture
  • Sitting in the same position for long durations

Symptoms

The symptoms usually associated with musculoskeletal disorders are:

Diagnosis

For disorders of the musculoskeletal system, physical examination can provide many important diagnostic clues. To confirm the diagnosis made by the physical exam, the following tests are very helpful:

  • Blood markers for rheumatoid arthritis
  • Urea, Creatinine, Electrolytes
  • MRI
  • X-ray
  • CT scan
  • Bone scan
  • Electromyographic studies

Treatment

The treatment plan differs according to the specific disorder that is present in a patient. However, some treatment modalities that are common to most musculoskeletal disorders are listed below:

  • Physiotherapy
  • Lifestyle modifications – eat healthy, exercise more
  • NSAIDs – for pain relief
  • Ibuprofen, acetaminophen – for pain relief
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