Infertility

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Overview

Infertility is referred to as the inability to conceive a child, despite having frequent, unprotected sex for more than a year. The issue could be with either you, or your partner, or other factors that play a role in pregnancy. But it is nothing to worry about, as with the help of a physician, most couples can greatly increase the chances of conception.

Causes

The causes of male and female infertility are listed below:

Male infertility:

  • Abnormal sperm production
  • Abnormal sperm function
  • Problems with sperm motility
  • Radiation damage

Female infertility:

  • Ovulation disorders
  • Uterine or cervical abnormalities
  • Fallopian tube damage
  • Fallopian tube obstruction
  • Endometriosis
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency
  • Pelvic adhesion

Symptoms

The only apparent symptom of this health condition is the inability to get pregnant or make your partner pregnant, after trying multiple times.

Diagnosis

For the diagnosis of infertility, a series of tests are conducted. They are the following:

Tests for males:

  • Semen analysis
  • Hormone testing
  • Genetic testing
  • Testicular biopsy
  • Imaging

Tests for females:

  • Ovulation testing
  • Hysterosalpingography
  • Ovarian reserve testing
  • Hormone testing
  • Imaging
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Laparoscopy

Treatment

Treatment for males:

Treatment for females:

  • Medications to stimulate ovulation
  • Intrauterine insemination
  • Surgery to restore fertility

In case of couples that can not become fertile despite treatment, some of the following measures can be taken to help them conceive:

  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
  • Assisted hatching
  • Donor sperm or egg
  • Surrogate
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