The Many Potentials of PEG-MGF Peptide


Mechano growth factor (MGF) is a naturally occurring compound that has been isolated in muscle, bone, heart, and nerve tissue. [i] The half-life of MGF is just 5-7 minutes, which is much less than the half-life of pegylated MGF (PEG-MGF), which is between 48 and 72 hours. As a result, MGF is often pegylated, which refers to adding polyethylene glycol.

PEG-MGF is a derivative of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and as a result, studies suggest it may perform actions analogous to IGF-1.

How exactly does PEG-MGF function?

Because of the proposed pleiotropic nature of PEG-MGF, research suggests its effects may simultaneously impact more than one system. Animal testing is used to get a basic understanding of the mechanism of action of PEG-MGF.

Findings imply that the most noticeable action of this peptide has been observed in skeletal muscle tissue, where researchers suggest it may produce muscular development by stimulating the division, fusion, and maturation of myoblasts, which in turn may lead to increased muscle mass. In order to do this, it may raise the number of muscle stem cells and produce new muscle cells.

Investigations purport that when the cells that make up the skeletal muscle are damaged; the MGF peptide may possibly boost the recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils to the location of the damage, which may speed up the healing process. [ii]

However, the healing of damaged tissue is often accompanied by inflammation, which, if allowed to persist for an extended period, may have harmful consequences. When introduced in such a context, PEG-MGF has been reported in studies to possibly reduce the production of inflammatory hormones.

As PEG-MGF is considered to be an isoform of IGF-1, scientists posit that the nature of their respective actions is likewise comparable. Like IGF-1, PEG-MGF may possibly regulate energy balance and expenditure, and possibly boost fat metabolism. [iii]

Researchers speculate that PEG-MGF may protect cardiac and skeletal muscle by preventing apoptosis and boosting the proliferation of cardiac stem cells. These actions appear similar to those performed by PEG-MGF on skeletal muscle. This was speculated in research using mouse models that were given PEG-MGF, which then displayed decreased cell death over eight hours of hypoxia compared to the group that served as the control. [iv]

Cardiovascular function is considerably reduced due to pathologic insult after a heart attack. This is because cardiac remodeling occurs. Scientists hypothesized that the presentation of PEG-MGF resulted in significantly reduced cardiomyocyte damage in mice. [v]

Studies suggest that the proliferation of osteoblasts, cells responsible for bone mineralization, may possibly be stimulated by PEG-MGF. Similarly, it may also improve the function of chondrocytes, which are cells that contribute to the formation of cartilage.

MMP-1 and MMP-2 are referred to as “ligament repairing factors,” their primary function is to maintain the tooth’s position inside the bone. As suggested by the findings of certain studies, PEG-MGF may possibly boost the expression of these factors. [vi]

In the central nervous system, research suggests this peptide may prevent neuron degeneration and, as a result, a wide variety of illnesses; however, the precise method by which it accomplishes this goal is not fully understood. [vii]

PEG MGF Peptide Research

Findings imply that the mechanism of action of PEG-MGF makes the properties of this substance clearer; diverse pathways lead to a variety of possible beneficial impacts.

Investigations purport that PEG-MGF may help injured muscle tissue recover more quickly by signaling the immune system in the event of an injury. This expedites the process of wound closure. Researchers speculate that the peptide may achieve this by functioning as an anti-inflammatory, though research is still being conducted to support this claim.

Researchers speculate that PEG-MGF peptide, an isoform of IGF-1, may potentially activate the receptor of IGF-1, which, in turn, may increase fat metabolism and promote lean body mass. IGF-1 receptors may slow the aging process and facilitate the healing of damaged muscle tissue. Combining these two characteristics may possibly enhance anti-aging and wound-healing potential.

Certain studies on mice suggest that presenting PEG-MGF appeared to have resulted in a 25% increase in average muscle fiber size. [viii]

Scientists hypothesize that the amount of time it takes for fractures and other bone and cartilage injuries to recover may be sped up with the aid of PEG-MGF. This peptide has been suggested to improve the migration of chondrocytes from the bone and, as a result, the maturation of these cells via studies conducted with mice. [ix]

Studies suggest that PEG-MGF may possibly regenerate neurons. As a result, researchers speculate it could be of tremendous use in mitigating conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which compromises the normal function of motor neurons. The neuronal function and cognitive capacity may both yield positive results from this compound. [x]

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[i] Expression of IGF-1 isoforms after exercise-induced muscle damage in humans: characterization of the MGF E peptide actions in vitro. (2009, August 1). PubMed.

[ii] Sun, K., Cheung, K., Au, S. W., Yeung, S. S., & Yeung, E. W. (2018). Overexpression of Mechano-Growth Factor Modulates Inflammatory Cytokine Expression and Macrophage Resolution in Skeletal Muscle Injury. Frontiers in Physiology, 9.

[iii] Janssen, J. a. M. J. L., Hofland, L. J., Strasburger, C. J., Van Den Dungen, E. S. R., & Thevis, M. (2016). Potency of Full-Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations. PLOS ONE, 11(3), e0150453.

[iv] Doroudian, G., Pinney, J. R., Ayala, P., Los, T., Desai, T. A., & Russell, B. (2014). Sustained delivery of MGF peptide from microrods attracts stem cells and reduces apoptosis of myocytes. Biomedical Microdevices, 16(5), 705–715.

[v] Peña, J. R., Pinney, J. R., Ayala, P., Desai, T. A., & Goldspink, P. H. (2015). Localized delivery of mechano-growth factor E-domain peptide via polymeric microstructures improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction. Biomaterials, 46, 26–34.

[vi] Mechano-growth factor regulated cyclic stretch-induced osteogenic differentiation and MMP-1, MMP-2 expression in human periodontal ligament cells by activating the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway]. (2019, February 1). PubMed.

[vii] Dłużniewska, J., Sarnowska, A., Beręsewicz, M., Johnson, I. T., Srai, S. K. S., Ramesh, B., Goldspink, G., Górecki, D. C., & Zabłocka, B. (2005). A strong neuroprotective effect of the autonomous C‐terminal peptide of IGF‐1 Ec (MGF) in brain ischemia. The FASEB Journal, 19(13), 1896–1898.

[viii] Goldspink, G. (2005). Research on mechano growth factor: its potential for optimizing physical training as well as misuse in doping. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(11), 787–788.

[ix] Jing, X., Ye, Y., Bao, Y., Zhang, J., Huang, J., Wang, R., Guo, J., & Guo, F. (2018). Mechano-growth factor protects against mechanical overload-induced damage and promotes migration of growth plate chondrocytes through RhoA/YAP pathway. Experimental Cell Research, 366(2), 81–91.

[x] Walker, A. (2017, July 20). Hearts and Minds of Mice and Men: Mechano Growth Factor a new tool in the battle against age-related neuron loss?

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