spinal cord – HTV https://htv.com.pk Thu, 26 Nov 2020 04:02:14 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Meningitis https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/meningitis https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/meningitis#respond Wed, 18 Jul 2018 08:08:04 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37969

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Overview

Meningitis is the infection of the membranous tissue (the meninges) surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. The meninges are composed of three layers; The Dura mater, the Arachnoid mater, and the Pia mater. In meningitis, the inflammation is basically of the Arachnoid and Pia mater, which are collectively known as the leptomeninges.

Causes

Meningitis is usually an infectious disease, of either bacterial, viral, or fungal origin. The organisms that can cause meningitis are listed below:

Bacteria:

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Chronic meningitis)

Viral:

  • Enteroviruses
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • HIV
  • Mumps virus
  • West nile virus

Symptoms

Initially, the symptoms of this health condition may mimic flu, but eventually, over the course of a few hours, to a few days, some of the following symptoms develop (in patients older than 2 years):

  • High-grade fever
  • Neck stiffness
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Confusion or difficulty concentrating
  • Seizures
  • Sleepiness
  • Sensitivity to light
  • No appetite or thirst
  • Skin rash (sometimes, such as in meningococcal meningitis)

In infants, however, the symptoms are a little different:

  • High fever
  • Constant crying
  • Excessive sleepiness or irritability
  • Inactivity or sluggishness
  • Poor feeding
  • A bulge in the soft spot on top of a baby’s head (this soft spot is called the anterior fontanelle)
  • Stiffness in a baby’s body and neck

Diagnosis

These are some of the diagnostic tests that can be conducted:

  • Blood cultures
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Spinal tap

Treatment

Treatment is dependent on the cause;

  • Bacterial – I/V antibiotics and corticosteroids
  • Viral – Bed rest, Fluids, Over the counter pain meds

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Nervous System Disorders https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/nervous-system-disorders https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/nervous-system-disorders#respond Thu, 28 Jun 2018 06:33:25 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37395

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Overview

The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, cranial, and peripheral nerves. Disorders that affect any of these structures lead to a variety of mental, and/or physical symptoms. Nervous system disorders are divided into the following categories:

  • Vascular disorders – Stroke, Transient ischemic attack, Hemorrhage
  • Infections – Meningitis, Encephalitis, Polio
  • Structural disorders – Cervical spondylosis, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Functional disorders – Headache, Dizziness, Epilepsy
  • Degenerative disorders – Parkinson’s diseases, Alzheimer’s disease

Causes

There is a extensive range of causes that can lead to nervous system disorders, but the more common ones are listed below:

Symptoms

Nervous system disorders can present with the following symptoms:

  • Persistent or sudden onset of a headache
  • A headache that changes or is different from the ones you usually get
  • Loss of feeling
  • Tingling
  • Weakness or loss of muscle strength
  • Loss of sight or double vision
  • Memory loss
  • Impaired mental ability
  • Lack of coordination of movements
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Tremors and seizures
  • Back pain which radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body
  • Muscle wasting
  • Slurred speech
  • Sudden language impairment (inability to speak, or comprehend speech)

Diagnosis

The following tests are important diagnostic tools for identifying nervous system disorders:

  • MRI brain
  • CT scan brain
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
  • Electromyogram (EMG)
  • PET scan
  • Angiogram
  • Evoked potentials
  • Myelogram

Treatment

Nervous system disorders can be treated with physiotherapy, medications, and surgery.

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