kidney problems – HTV https://htv.com.pk Thu, 14 May 2020 23:57:34 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Kidney Failure https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/kidney-failure https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/kidney-failure#respond Thu, 12 Jul 2018 08:08:11 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37785

The post Kidney Failure appeared first on HTV.

]]>

Overview

Kidney failure refers to the condition in which the kidneys are suddenly unable to filter waste products from the blood. This causes the build-up of waste products in the blood that is potentially life-threatening, if not gotten rid of quickly. Although kidney failure may be fatal but is reversible if managed correctly and on time.

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of this health condition may include:

  • Decreased urine output
  • Fluid retention (as kidney filters out excess water)
  • Swelling in your legs, ankles or feet (Because of the fluid retention)
  • Altered mental status (drowsiness, confusion, or even coma)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Seizures
  • Chest pain

Causes

There are three main mechanisms which lead to kidney failure:

  • Impaired flow of blood to the kidney
  • Damage to the kidney
  • Blockage of urine outflow from the kidneys

There are various conditions that can lead to the development of acute kidney failure via the mechanisms mentioned above. A few of them are listed below:

  • Impaired flow of blood to the kidney – blood/fluid loss, blood pressure medicine, severe burns, severe dehydration, liver disease
  • Damage to the kidney – glomerulonephritis, ischemia of the kidney, infection, lupus, multiple myeloma, scleroderma
  • Blockage of urine outflow from the kidneys – bladder cancer, obstruction by stone, colon cancer, enlarged prostate, prostate cancer, cervical cancer

Diagnosis

If the signs and symptoms suggest acute kidney failure, some of the following tests can be used to reach a conclusive diagnosis:

  • 24-hour urine output
  • Urinalysis
  • Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine measurement
  • Ultrasound KUB
  • Kidney biopsy

Treatment

After the diagnosis of kidney failure, the patient is immediately hospitalized, and tests are conducted to find out the cause of the condition. Once the cause has been established, it is treated, and so the kidney failure resolves. Until then, the patient undergoes dialysis to remove the harmful waste from the blood.

The post Kidney Failure appeared first on HTV.

]]>
https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/kidney-failure/feed 0
Kidney Stones https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/kidney-stones https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/kidney-stones#respond Thu, 12 Jul 2018 07:31:00 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37781

The post Kidney Stones appeared first on HTV.

]]>

Overview

Hard, solid, deposits of crystallized minerals and salt that may obstruct that pathways of kidneys are called kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). These stones can be present anywhere in the urinary tract from the kidneys to the bladder. Although incredibly painful to pass out in the urine, in most cases they do not leave any residual pathology. In some cases, however, they may lead to infections and may require surgical intervention.

Causes

Kidney stones are often made when calcium, oxalate, or uric acid in the urine crystallize due to inadequate dilution by the fluid present. These may form depending upon the diet, any present urinary infection or the following risk factors:

  • Family or personal history
  • Dehydration
  • High sodium or high protein diet
  • Obesity
  • Gastric bypass surgery
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Other medical conditions (hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria)

Symptoms

Kidney stones usually start producing symptoms when they move within the urinary tract, particularly the ureters. Following are some symptoms of kidney stones:

  • Severe pain in the back and flanks
  • Pain that radiates down to the groin or abdomen, and comes in waves
  • Red, brown or pink urine
  • Blood in urine
  • Painful urination
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fever and chills (if the infection is present)

Diagnosis

After the history and clinical exams, blood tests, imaging studies such as X-Rays, Ultrasounds, and CT scans, and urinalysis may conclude the diagnosis.

Treatment

For small stones, pain relievers and increased fluid intake is a sufficient intervention. For large, immobile stones that may cause infection or bleeding, Lithotripsy (ultrasound waves used to break and dislodge stones) and surgical intervention may be required.

The post Kidney Stones appeared first on HTV.

]]>
https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/kidney-stones/feed 0
Chronic Kidney Disease https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/chronic-kidney-disease https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/chronic-kidney-disease#respond Thu, 14 Jun 2018 07:00:37 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37178

The post Chronic Kidney Disease appeared first on HTV.

]]>

Overview

Chronic kidney disease corresponds to the gradual loss of kidney function. When there is a gradual loss of kidney function, the excess fluid, and waste products usually eliminated by the kidney, start to build up in the body and lead to the signs and symptoms of CKD.

Causes

This disease usually occurs secondary to some underlying disease process in either the kidney, or some other system of the body. Some of these underlying diseases are listed below:

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Chronically raised blood pressure
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • Prolonged hindrance in the urinary tract, from conditions such as enlarged prostate, kidney stones, and some cancers
  • Recurrent Pyelonephritis (kidney infection)

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of kidney disease aren’t usually prominent until irreversible damage has occurred to the kidneys. These are the following signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease:

  • Nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Sleep problems
  • Changes in how much you urinate
  • Decreased mental alertness
  • Muscle spasms and cramps
  • Puffiness in feet and ankles
  • Constant itching
  • Chest pain, if liquid builds up around the lining of the heart
  • Shortness of breath, if fluid builds up in the lungs
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)

Diagnosis

For the diagnosis of kidney disease, a detailed history and examination are the first step, after which some of the following tests can help confirm the diagnosis:

  • Urea, Creatinine, Electrolytes (UCE)
  • Urine sample direct report
  • Ultrasound kidney
  • CT scan kidney
  • Kidney biopsy

Treatment

Even though chronic kidney disease has no cure, sometimes, treating the underlying cause can improve kidney function.

Most of the treatment is aimed at treating the complications caused by this chronic condition.

The post Chronic Kidney Disease appeared first on HTV.

]]>
https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/chronic-kidney-disease/feed 0