healthP – HTV https://htv.com.pk Fri, 27 Nov 2020 09:18:45 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Paralysis (Stroke) https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/paralysis-stroke https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/paralysis-stroke#respond Mon, 23 Jul 2018 10:34:27 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38038

The post Paralysis (Stroke) appeared first on HTV.

]]>

Overview

When a part of the brain is receiving less or no blood, the cells of that portion are not receiving oxygen necessary for survival. This leads to the cells beginning to die a few minutes are the blood supply stops. This process is called a stroke. When a stroke occurs in part of the brain responsible for controlling the muscles of the limbs (that allow movement), the patient becomes paralyzed.

Causes

The main cause of paralysis is a stroke. The following are causes of a stroke:

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of this disease depend upon which muscle is paralyzed. Some of them can be listed as:

  • Inability to move one limb
  • Inability to move 2 limbs
  • Inability to move all 4 limbs
  • Inability to walk

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of paralysis is made by symptoms.

Treatment

Treatment of paralysis is done once the patient has received treatment for stroke. It is done by physiotherapy, as there is no way to reverse the cell death caused by a stroke, so the only method is to return as much function as possible to the limb via physiotherapy.

The post Paralysis (Stroke) appeared first on HTV.

]]>
https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/paralysis-stroke/feed 0
Parkinson’s Disease https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/parkinsons-disease https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/parkinsons-disease#respond Mon, 23 Jul 2018 09:42:30 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38077

The post Parkinson’s Disease appeared first on HTV.

]]>

Overview

Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disease that gradually increases with time and affects the patient’s movement. It starts gradually and slowly worsens with time. The disease is associated with problems in the basal ganglia of the brain. Even though the disease is progressive, and has no cure, it can be managed significantly with medications.

Causes

Parkinson’s occurs when the levels of dopamine, in the human brain, decrease. This decreased dopamine leads to the involuntary movements exhibited in Parkinson’s.

The dopamine levels decrease because the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for the production of this dopamine, degenerate. Two important causes lead to this degeneration of dopamine producing neurons:

  1. Genes
  2. Environmental factors

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s can be listed as follows:

  • Tremors
  • Slowed down movements
  • Expressionless face
  • Rigid muscles
  • Changes in speech (Becomes slurred or soft)
  • Impaired posture
  • Impaired balance
  • Loss of arm swing while walking

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Parkinson’s is made entirely clinically, with signs and symptoms extracted from the patient’s detailed history, and physical and neurological examination. This is because there is no specific test to confirm the diagnosis of Parkinson’s.

Treatment

The treatment is not curative but aimed at minimizing the signs and symptoms and slowing the progress of the disease. This is done by some different medications, some of which are listed below:

  • Carbidopa-Levodopa
  • Dopamine agonist
  • MAO-B inhibitors
  • Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors
  • Anticholinergics
  • Amantadine

The post Parkinson’s Disease appeared first on HTV.

]]>
https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/parkinsons-disease/feed 0
PMS/PMDD https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/premenstrual-syndrome-pms https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/premenstrual-syndrome-pms#respond Mon, 23 Jul 2018 09:37:48 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38074

The post PMS/PMDD appeared first on HTV.

]]>

Overview

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a physiological condition, in which the female experiences a variety of symptoms, just before the start of her next menstrual period. The symptoms begin a few days before the period and are relieved when the menstrual bleeding starts.

Premenstrual dysmorphic disorder (PMDD) is a more severe form of PMS, in that it’s symptoms can lead to significant obstruction in daily activities.

Causes

The exact cause of Premenstrual syndrome is unknown, but some of the following factors are known to play a role in the development of PMS and PMDD:

  • Cyclic changes in hormones (Estrogen, and Progesterone)
  • Fluctuations in the brain biochemistry (change in levels of serotonin, the neurotransmitter responsible for keeping mood stable)
  • Underlying depression

Symptoms

The symptoms are a combination of physical, and psychological problems. Some of them are listed below:

  • Mood swings or irritability
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Bloating
  • Weight gain due to fluid retention
  • Appetite changes, and food craving
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Acne
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Crying for no, or a very small reason

The symptoms of PMDD are similar to PMS symptoms, but they are much more severe, and the mood swings and emotional disturbances especially stand out.

Diagnosis

There are no particular tests to diagnose PMS and PMDD, so the diagnosis is made purely by the patient’s medical history.

Treatment

The treatment is a two-step process. Initially PMS is managed by lifestyle changes, but if that doesn’t help, some medications can be taken to improve the symptoms.

Lifestyle changes consist of:

Medications:

  • Antidepressants
  • Diuretics
  • NSAIDS
  • Hormonal contraceptives
  • Calcium

The post PMS/PMDD appeared first on HTV.

]]>
https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/premenstrual-syndrome-pms/feed 0
Pneumonia https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/pneumonia-2 https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/pneumonia-2#respond Mon, 23 Jul 2018 09:28:49 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38071

The post Pneumonia appeared first on HTV.

]]>

Overview

Pneumonia corresponds to the infection of the lungs that causes inflammation. It could either be mild, moderate, severe or even life-threatening. It is more dangerous in babies, infants, adults over the age of 65, and immunocompromised patients. The infection could either be bacterial, viral, or even fungal.

Causes

There is a larger range of organisms that can lead to this disease, some of the more common ones are listed as follows:

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia
  • Hemophilus influenza
  • Chlamydia pneumonia
  • Legionella pneumophila
  • Moraxella catarrhalis

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of this health condition are:

  • Cough
  • Chest pain
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Altered mental state

Diagnosis

After taking medical history and physical examination, the following tests are recommended for the diagnosis of this  disease:

  • Blood culture
  • Chest X-ray
  • Pulse oximetry
  • Sputum culture
  • CT scan
  • Pleural fluid culture

Treatment

  • Antibiotics
  • Cough medicine (for symptomatic relief)
  • Antipyretic medicines (for fever)

The post Pneumonia appeared first on HTV.

]]>
https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/pneumonia-2/feed 0
Poison Ivy https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/poison-ivy https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/poison-ivy#respond Mon, 23 Jul 2018 08:44:09 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38068

The post Poison Ivy appeared first on HTV.

]]>

Overview

Poison ivy is a plant, which comprises of an oily resin in its leaves and stems. The oily resin is called Urushiol. Urushiol is responsible for the production of a characteristic rash that manifests when a person’s skin comes in contact with poison ivy plant. This is an allergic reaction.

Causes

The rash is triggered by coming into contact with the urushiol in the poison ivy plant. That contact can occur by the following methods:

  • Brushing against a leaf while walking
  • Urushiol coming into contact with clothes or objects that later come into contact with your body
  • Inhalation of smoke coming from burning the plant
  • Directly touching the plant, ignorantly

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms that are associated with a poison ivy rash are:

  • Redness
  • Blisters
  • Swelling
  • Itching
  • Breathing difficulty (if smoke from burning poison ivy has been inhaled)

Diagnosis

No testing is needed, as the rash can be identified by a doctor just by looking at it.

If the rash is small, not much is done as it is self-limiting and goes away in 2-3 weeks. However; if the rash is widespread, leading to excessive blister formation, oral corticosteroids (Prednisolone) may be taken to limit the rash.

Treatment

Antibiotics are prescribed to prevent infection of the rash.

The post Poison Ivy appeared first on HTV.

]]>
https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/poison-ivy/feed 0