healthh – HTV https://htv.com.pk Thu, 26 Nov 2020 04:02:14 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Hair Loss https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/hair-loss https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/hair-loss#respond Tue, 10 Jul 2018 08:20:06 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37657

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Overview

Hair loss refers to the loss of hair from any part of your body, most commonly, the scalp. It is common in both men and women, however it is more common in men.

Causes

The exact cause cannot be pinpointed; however, the following are the most common factors that contribute to hair loss:

  • Hereditary
  • Use of certain medications
  • Hormonal changes
  • Certain medical illnesses

Symptoms

The symptoms of this condition may not be as easy to identify as they seem, since the process is so gradual, they might not be apparent until the hair loss has progressed to quite an extent. The following signs and symptoms are associated with hair loss:

Diagnosis

Normally, there are no tests conducted for normal balding associated with aging, but in young patients, sudden hair loss can be alarming, and some of the following tests can be conducted to look for the underlying cause:

  • Blood tests
  • Pull test
  • Scalp biopsy
  • Light microscopy

Treatment

Some of the following methods are used for the treatment of this condition:

  • Medications such as Minoxidil, and Finasteride
  • Wigs
  • Surgical implantation of hair

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Headache and Migraine https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/headaches-and-migraine https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/headaches-and-migraine#respond Tue, 10 Jul 2018 03:46:13 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37660

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Overview

A headache is a very common symptom, experienced by almost all individuals, at least once in their lifetime. A headache could either be primary or secondary to some underlying disease. The following are the primary headaches:

  • Cluster headache
  • Tension headache
  • Migraine

Causes

The exact cause of migraine can not be pinpointed, however some of the following factors can trigger an attack:

  • Estrogen
  • Cheese
  • Chocolate
  • Stress
  • Changes in sleep pattern
  • Intense physical exertion

Symptoms

Migraine is the most severe of these headaches, some of the symptoms of which are discussed below:

  • Prodrome period – mood changes, food cravings, neck stiffness, increased thirst and hunger
  • Aura – visual disturbances, hearing noises, difficulty speaking, pins and needle sensation on the arms and legs.
  • Attack – throbbing pain on one or both sides of the head, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, sensitivity to light and sound
  • Postdrome period – confusion, mood changes, sensitivity to light and sound, weakness

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of migraine is made mainly on the history and physical signs and symptoms, some of the following tests can aid in the confirmation of the diagnosis:

  • Blood tests
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Spinal tap

Treatment

Treatment is based on the use of medications to control the acute attack, and to prevent future attacks of migraine:

  • Acute attack – aspirin, acetaminophen, indomethacin, triptans, opioids
  • Preventive medicine – beta blockers, tricyclic anti-depressants, anti-seizure drugs

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Heart Attack https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/heart-attack https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/heart-attack#respond Mon, 09 Jul 2018 09:06:10 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37664

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Overview

Heart attack is a phenomenon in which the blood flow to the heart muscle suddenly becomes very less or stops completely. This causes ischemia of the heart muscle, and so no oxygen and glucose reach the cells of the heart muscle, and the cells start to die within some minutes. This heart condition can lead to death if not managed immediately, and properly.

Causes

A heart attack usually occurs secondarily to an underlying disease of the coronary arteries. The types of coronary artery diseases that cause this condition are:

  • Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease
  • Severe spasm of the coronary artery
  • Coronary artery dissection

Symptoms

Heart disease can occur at any time, to anyone, hence it is important for everyone to stay vigilant of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Pressure, tightness, pain, or a squeezing or aching sensation in the chest or arm that may spread to the neck, jaw, or back
  • Nausea
  • Indigestion
  • Heartburn or abdominal pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweat
  • Fatigue
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness

Diagnosis

The following tests are the most helpful in confirming the diagnosis of a heart attack:

  • Electrocardiography
  • Troponin T (heart attack marker in the blood)
  • Troponin I (heart attack marker in the blood)
  • Exercise stress test
  • Echocardiogram
  • Chest X-ray

Treatment

The treatment of a heart attack follows a certain protocol, which consists of the following medications:

  • Aspirin
  • Thrombolytics
  • Antiplatelet drugs
  • Pain relievers
  • Nitroglycerin
  • Beta blockers
  • ACE inhibitors

For cases where the blockage is very severe, after initial management, surgery is done to insert a stent into the blocked artery to keep it open.

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Heart Disease https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/heart-disease https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/heart-disease#respond Sun, 08 Jul 2018 10:50:56 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37746

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Overview

Heart disease refers to a group of diseases that primarily affect your heart. The diseases include:

  • Coronary artery disease (disease of the vessels that supply blood to the heart)
  • Congenital heart disease (diseases present since birth)
  • Arrhythmias (disorders of heart rhythm)
  • Cardiomyopathies
  • Pericardial diseases
  • Diseases of the heart valves

Causes

The causes of these diseases vary with each specific condition, however most of the heart diseases can be linked to an unhealthy lifestyle, which includes, lack of exercise, unhealthy diet, cigarette smoking, and excessive alcohol intake.

Symptoms

The symptoms vary according to the specific disease, but the following symptoms are usually associated with heart disease:

  • Chest pain or tightness or discomfort
  • Pain in the jaw, neck, or upper arm
  • Racing heart beat
  • Fluttering in your chest
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Bluish discoloration of the skin
  • Sweating
  • Swelling in the legs
  • Fatigue

Diagnosis

The following diagnostic tests are all useful in the diagnosis of heart disease:

  • Electrocardiography (ECG)
  • Echocardiogram
  • Holter monitoring
  • Stress test
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • Cardiac CT scan
  • Cardiac MRI
  • Angiography

Treatment

The general treatment of heart disease consists of the following measures:

  • Lifestyle changes – incorporate more exercise, healthy food, quit smoking, and limit alcohol intake
  • Medications
  • Medical procedures – Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), Pericardiocentesis
  • Surgery – Bypass, valve replacement

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Heartburn https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/heartburn https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/heartburn#respond Sat, 07 Jul 2018 10:29:45 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37743

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Overview

Burning pain in the chest, just beneath the breastbone, is known as heartburn. Often worsened by lying flat or at night, it is usually mild and quite common in people. It can usually be managed successfully by over-the-counter medication or lifestyle and diet modifications. Heartburn persistent and severely uncomfortable in nature is, however, a call for alarm and should be evaluated appropriately.

Causes

Heartburn commonly occurs due to acid reflux, which is caused when acid in the stomach flows backwards into the esophagus (a tube joining mouth and stomach) and irritates the lining inside the esophagus. It is common after ingestion of certain type of food (fatty, spicy food, alcohol, etc.) and in pregnant and overweight individuals.

Symptoms

Symptoms of heartburn include:

  • Burning sensation beneath the breastbone
  • Burning pain made worse on lying flat, and commonly after eating
  • Sensation worsening on bending over

Heartburn associated with other symptoms such as jaw or arm pain, nausea, and vomiting, can be an indicator of heart attacks and must be checked by a health care physician immediately. Persistent heartburn that cannot be treated with OTC medication and that associated with difficulty in swallowing or eating also needs to be evaluated.

Recurrent burning in the heart can also lead to a condition known as GERD (Gastro-esophageal reflux disease) in which acid may cause damage to the mucosal lining of the esophagus.

Diagnosis

Heartburn diagnosis is concluded upon personal history and examination. To pinpoint a diagnosis of GERD with heartburn as a symptom X-rays, Endoscopy, and acid probe tests can be utilized.

Treatment

Over-the-counter medication that usually provides relief includes:

  • Antacid
  • H2-Receptor Antagonists
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors

Lifestyle modifications (reducing weight, avoiding alcohol) and choosing diet options carefully may also help with relief of symptoms.

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