healthf – HTV https://htv.com.pk Fri, 05 Jun 2020 07:00:58 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Fibromyalgia https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/fibromyalgia https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/fibromyalgia#respond Fri, 06 Jul 2018 12:57:00 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37640

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Overview

Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by generalized musculoskeletal pain, associated with fatigue, mood disorders, and problems with memory or sleep. It is common in women, and may cause significant impairment in functioning.

Cause

The exact cause behind fibromyalgia is not known. It is thought to be a mixture of genetic, biological, and environmental factors. It may also be due to the after-effects of trauma or physical injury. It occurs when the pain pathways in the brain are amplified. Risk factors for fibromyalgia are:

  • Female gender
  • Family history
  • Other disorders such as SLE, Rheumatoid arthritis etc.
  • Stressful lifestyle

Symptoms

Symptoms of this health condition may arise suddenly or after a trigger event, such as a traumatic accident or incident, surgery, injury, etc. Common symptoms include:

  • Dull, constant pain in both sides of the body lasting for more than three months
  • Fatigue
  • Disrupted sleep, insomnia, sleep disorders
  • Cognitive difficulties, such as difficulty concentrating and paying attention

Fibromyalgia can often co-exist with other conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), migraine or tension-type headaches, bladder infections, and temporomandibular joint disorders.

Diagnosis

Widespread body pain for more than three months with no underlying disorder explaining the presence of the pain can be diagnosed as fibromyalgia after careful exclusion of all other possible conditions.

Treatment

Medication that can be used to relieve symptoms for fibromyalgia include:

Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and counseling can also be opted for.

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First Aid https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/first-aid https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/first-aid#respond Fri, 06 Jul 2018 09:33:08 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37613

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Overview

First aid is an on-the-spot treatment that is provided to a patient before they can be taken to the doctor. It is a set of basic skills that should be learned and practiced by all individuals, irrespective of whether or not they’re in the medical profession. Some of the following conditions are commonly encountered during a person’s lifetime, and require immediate first aid management:

  • Choking
  • Minor burns
  • Major burns
  • Bleeding
  • Shock

Causes

The causes of these common conditions are listed below:

  • Choking – a foreign object (could be food, or inanimate object) gets lodged in the throat or windpipe, blocking the flow of air.
  • Minor burns – contact of skin with flames, chemicals, radiation, or hot objects
  • Major burns – same as minor burns, but the duration of contact is more
  • Bleeding – cut or laceration, road traffic accident
  • Shock – trauma, heatstroke, severe burn, severe blood loss, allergic reaction

Symptoms

Before the actual first aid treatment, it is important to discuss some of the symptoms associated with the conditions mentioned above so that they can be recognized easily:

  • Choking – hands clutched to the throat, inability to talk, skin turning blue
  • Minor burns – red skin, pain, blisters
  • Major burns – deep, dry and leathery skin, charred (black) patches of skin
  • Bleeding
  • Shock – cool or clammy skin, pale, rapid breathing, fainting, enlarged pupils, changes in mental status

Diagnosis

The diagnosis is made by symptoms.

Treatment

Even though these conditions are treated in the hospital, the first aid protocol for each is discussed below:

  • Choking – the Heimlich maneuver is done. Stand behind the person. Wrap your arms around the waist. Tip the person forward slightly. Make a fist with one hand. Position it slightly above the person’s navel. Grasp the fist with the other hand. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick, upward thrust — as if trying to lift the person up. Repeat until the object is dislodged.
  • Minor burns – cool the burn, remove all clothing, don’t break blisters, apply lotion, and bandage the burn.
  • Major burns – cover the burn, remove jewelry/belts, do not immerse in water, elevate burned area, watch closely for signs of shock.
  • Bleeding – apply pressure to the bleeding area, tie a tourniquet.
  • Shock – lay down the person and elevate legs and feet lightly, cover in a blanket, immediately call for help

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Food Poisoning https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/food-poisoning https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/food-poisoning#respond Thu, 05 Jul 2018 10:29:05 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37548

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Overview

Food poisoning refers to an infection of the GIT acquired through the ingestion of food that has been contaminated with some microorganis, or it’s toxin. The contamination can occur during the process of preparing the food. The illness is usually mild, but sometimes requires hospital admission.

Causes

There are multiple organisms that can cause food poisoning, and they can be listed as follows:

  • Campylobacter
  • Clostridium
  • Escherichia coli
  • Giardia
  • Listeria
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Vibrio cholera
  • Vibrio vulnificus
  • Rota virus

These infectious agents are all spread through eating contaminated food. Some of the ways in which food can become contaminated are:

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms usually start a few hours after the ingestion of the contaminated food. The following signs and symptoms are most commonly associated with food poisoning:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea (watery or bloody)
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Fever

Diagnosis

For diagnosing food poisoning, a detailed history is the basic step. Questions about the stool, and food intake in the past few hours can guide the diagnosis. Apart from the history, a stool sample can be taken and cultured to identify the organism responsible.

Treatment

Treatment begins soon as the diagnosis is made, without waiting for stool culture. The following steps are implied in the treatment of food poisoning:

  • Replace fluids
  • Antibiotics
  • Bed rest

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