healthc – HTV https://htv.com.pk Wed, 25 Nov 2020 04:31:23 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Cancer https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/cancer https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/cancer#respond Wed, 27 Jun 2018 07:16:55 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37369

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Overview

Cancer refers to an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of the cells of any tissue of the body. These abnormally growing cells have the ability to infiltrate other surrounding tissues and spread to other tissues that are not in the immediate surroundings, via blood and lymph.

Causes

The cause of all types of cancer is the same – mutation in the DNA of any cell. The mutation alters the genes of the DNA in such a way that the new formed gene allows the cell to replicate rapidly and uncontrollably.

Genetic mutations have multiple causes, some of which are:

  • Smoking
  • Radiation
  • Viruses
  • Cancer causing chemicals, called carcinogens
  • Obesity
  • Hormones
  • Chronic inflammation

Symptoms

Although cancer symptoms depend upon the region of the body that is involved, some of the general symptoms associated with most types of cancers are listed below:

  • Fatigue
  • Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
  • Weight changes, including unintended loss
  • Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that won’t heal, or changes to existing moles
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Persistent cough or trouble breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
  • Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
  • Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats
  • Unexplained bleeding or bruising

Diagnosis

The following tests are useful in the diagnosis of cancer:

  • Tissue biopsy
  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • PET scan
  • X ray
  • Ultrasound

Treatment

  • Surgical removal of cancerous tissue
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/carpal-tunnel-syndrome https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/carpal-tunnel-syndrome#respond Wed, 27 Jun 2018 06:43:38 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37364

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Overview

Carpal tunnel is a passage for the median nerve within the wrist on the side of the thumb, index finger and middle finger. Pain, numbness or tingling within this region is known as the carpal tunnel syndrome. This condition is either self limited and relieved with rest, or requires treatment.

Causes

Symptoms of this condition arise due to compression of the median nerve within this tunnel. It can be due to a simple wrist fracture, or inflammation caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Some risk factors behind carpal tunnel syndrome are:

  • Female gender
  • Anatomically smaller tunnel
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Thyroid diseases
  • Kidney failure
  • Repetitive wrist movements

Symptoms

Symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome are:

  • Numbness, tingling or pain in the thumb, middle or index finger
  • Weakness in hand, especially wrist
  • Pain and discomfort in the wrist or palm

Diagnosis

Diagnosis can usually be made on history and clinical examination, especially of the wrist and associated movements. X-rays, Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies can also be used.

Treatment

If rest and use of ice/heat packs don’t help, following therapies can be used:

  • Wrist splinting
  • NSAID
  • Corticosteroids
  • Surgical decompression of the nerve

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Cervical Cancer https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/cervical-cancer https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/cervical-cancer#respond Mon, 25 Jun 2018 07:52:17 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37332

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Overview

The cervix is the lowermost area of the uterus, and the transformation of the cells of the cervix into cancerous cells, leads to the development of cervical cancer. It is caused by a few particular strains of human papilloma virus (HPV), which is transmitted to the female uterus via sexual intercourse.

Causes

Basically, cervical cancer occurs when the cells of the cervix acquire a genetic mutation. This mutation leads to the cells of the cervix to replicate exponentially, and uncontrollably. HPV plays a major role in this development of normal cells to cancer cells, but most women with the virus will not develop cancer.

Symptoms

In the early stages, cervical cancer doesn’t produce any significant signs and symptoms, however, it can lead to some of the following symptoms when the cancer has advanced:

  • Pain during intercourse
  • Pelvic pain
  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse
  • Vaginal bleeding in between two menstrual periods
  • Vaginal bleeding after menopause
  • Watery, bloody vaginal discharge, that may be heavy, and foul smelling.

Diagnosis

The key to combat cervical cancer effectively is early diagnosis. For diagnosis the following are some recommended screening tests that all women should undergo routinely:

  • Pap smear
  • HPV DNA test

To confirm the diagnosis, these are the tests that are commonly conducted:

  • Punch biopsy
  • Endocervical curettage
  • Electrical wire loop biopsy
  • Cone biopsy

Treatment

Treatment modalities for cervical cancer can be listed as the following:

  • Surgery – Simple hysterectomy, radical hysterectomy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy

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Chicken Pox https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/chicken-pox https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/chicken-pox#respond Wed, 20 Jun 2018 12:46:12 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37286

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Overview

Chicken Pox, or varicella, is a common viral infection in children and sometimes in adults which results in an eruption of highly itchy rash with formation of pustules all over the skin and mucosal membranes. It is a highly contagious condition and before the introduction of vaccine against varicella, almost every individual had a history of one bout of chicken pox at the time of adulthood.

Causes

The virus behind this disease is called Varicella Zoster. The same virus is also responsible for shingles (Herpes Zoster). It can be transmitted from an infected individual very rapidly by direct contact, or air droplets produced via coughing or sneezing. Risk factors of getting chicken pox are:

  • No history of getting chicken pox
  • Non-vaccinated individuals
  • Close contact with patients

Symptoms

This condition usually presents at first with flu like symptoms: mild fever, body pain, loss of appetite, malaise and fatigue. The rash then appears and undergoes the following transition:

  • Raised pink or red bumps
  • Small fluid filled blisters
  • Crusts and scabs

The duration of these symptoms is usually about five to ten days.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of chicken pox is easily made on clinical inspection of the typical rash.

Treatment

In healthy children, no treatment is required and the condition typically resolves on its own. In older or aged adults, especially in which complications can be anticipated, certain antivirals may be used.

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Chikungunya https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/chikungunya https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/chikungunya#respond Wed, 20 Jun 2018 10:31:28 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37268

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Overview

Chikungunya is a viral infection transmitted by a mosquito bite. The symptoms of this disease are rarely fatal, but can be severe, long-lasting and debilitating. Fever and joint pain are two main problems faced by the patient and can cause significant discomfort in the long run.

Causes

Chikungunya occurs after a bite from an infected mosquito. Although not contagious, it can spread through contact with an infected individuals blood. It is a problem, especially in the tropical areas of the world.

Symptoms

Common symptoms of Chikungunya are:

  • Fever lasting few days
  • Joint pain lasting weeks to months
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Rash
  • Joint swelling and discomfort

Uveitis, nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis are a few of the complications that can arise after Chikungunya. It is important to carefully monitor for these complications as they may prove to be much more fatal than the initial presentation.

Diagnosis

After history, clinical examination, and laboratory tests have ruled out other problems; chikungunya can be diagnosed on a blood test.

Treatment

Prevention of mosquito bites appears to be the most effective way to avoid this disease. Besides getting rest and consuming plenty of fluids, easily available painkillers such as naproxen, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen may prove helpful. Physiotherapy may also cause improvement in the joints.

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