fever – HTV https://htv.com.pk Fri, 27 Nov 2020 09:18:45 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Q Fever https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/q-fever https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/q-fever#respond Fri, 17 Aug 2018 05:48:39 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38815

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Overview

Q fever is short for Query fever and is a bacterial infection caused by Coxiella burnetii. This bacterial infection is commonly found in goats, cattle, and sheep. Infected animals contaminate the environment around them, and when humans inhale that dust, they develop Q fever.

People who work around these animals – such as farmers and veterinarians – are most susceptible to this infection. The symptoms of mild Q fever are insignificant. However, if left untreated, it becomes chronic and can become very serious, as it starts damaging a person’s organs, including:

Causes

Coxiella burnetii bacteria first infect animals that are mainly found in the amniotic fluid, placenta, and other birth products of the infected animals. The bacteria present in farm animals like goats, sheep, and cattle also transmits through milk, feces, and urine.

These substances present in the barnyard tend to contaminate the dust, which affects the overall environment. Breathing into this air can transmit the Q fever to humans. In some cases, even drinking unpasteurized milk from an infected animal can also cause infection.

Symptoms

It can take up to three weeks for the Q fever symptoms to appear. It is also possible that the symptoms may not appear at all. Generally, the symptoms of Q fever are mild, and may only include:

  • Sweats or chills
  • High fever
  • A cough
  • A headache
  • Breathing problems
  • Clay-colored stools
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Jaundice
  • Abdominal pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Muscle pain
  • Rash

Diagnosis

The symptoms alone may not be enough to diagnose Q fever. In case the doctor suspects the condition, they may ask if you live or work in an environment that put you at risk of getting more exposure to the bacteria.

The most common way to diagnose Q fever is to get a blood antibody test. However, there are still chances for the antibody test to appear negative if the bacteria has just been transferred. Thus, it requires the expertise of the doctor to determine whether or not it requires treatment.

For chronic Q fever, chest X-rays and tests to check heart valves are usually carried out.

Treatment

Treatment of Q fever depends on how severe the symptoms are. Milder Q fever may not require treatment at all. For severe symptoms, doctors may prescribe antibiotics. Most doctors prescribe doxycycline as the preferred antibiotic for both adults and children.

In case you are suspecting the condition, you should still start taking the treatment right away to keep the symptoms from becoming severe.

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Tuberculosis (TB) https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/tuberculosistb https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/tuberculosistb#respond Mon, 30 Jul 2018 11:15:36 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38434

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Overview

Tuberculosis is a highly infectious, and transmissible disease, most commonly in the lung, but can occur in other organs as well. The bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it. It is found much more commonly in undeveloped countries. In patients with HIV, the incidence of TB is higher, as a lowered immune response, makes a patient unable to fight the infection.

Causes

The bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it. The bacteria is spread via person to person by air borne transmission. This means that if a person with TB coughs, sneezes, talks, laughs, or spits, microscopic droplets of water, carrying the bacteria, enter the air. When this air is drawn in by a healthy person, that person can also get infected.

It’s easier to get the infection from someone you live with, so precautions must be taken.

Symptoms

TB has 2 forms, a latent form, that is the inactive form of the disease, which does not have any symptoms (but the patient still can develop symptoms at a later stage when the disease becomes active), and, an active form, that manifests with some of the following symptoms:

  • Coughing, lasting for more than 3 weeks
  • Coughing up blood
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Night sweats
  • Weight loss (when the patient isn’t trying to lose weight)
  • Loss of appetite

These symptoms vary according to the organ in which the infection is active, for example, abdominal TB can present with diarrhea, and TB of the spine can manifest as back pain.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of TB is made easily by symptoms, and signs found on proper clinical examination of the patient, however, some of the following tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis:

PPD tuberculin skin test

  • Blood tests
  • Chest X-ray
  • Chest CT scan
  • Sputum test (to check the presence of the bacteria in the sputum)

Treatment

For the treatment of TB, a 9 month course of a combination of 4 drugs is necessary. The drugs most commonly used are:

  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampin
  • Ethambutol
  • Pyrazinamide

It is very important to complete the entire course of medication for 9 months, otherwise the disease may come back, and this time it could become resistant to the drugs.

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Typhoid Fever https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/typhoid-fever https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/typhoid-fever#respond Mon, 30 Jul 2018 11:02:16 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38430

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Overview

Typhoid fever is also known as enteric fever. It is caused by infection with the bacteria Salmonella typhi. The infection is much more common in third world countries, as compared to the developed countries. Mostly the symptoms resolve within a few weeks after starting treatment, however some patients may develop complications.

Causes

Typhoid fever is caused by infection with the bacteria Salmonella typhi, which can be transmitted by fecal-oral transmission – by consuming food or water contaminated by feces that has the bacteria.

Symptoms

The following are some of the symptoms associated with typhoid fever:

If treatment is delayed, the disease can progress and the patient may develop some of the following complications:

  • Delirium
  • Typhoid state – this is a state in which the patient is lying motionless, exhausted, with his eyes half shut.

Diagnosis

The following tests can be done to confirm the diagnosis of typhoid fever:

  • Stool culture
  • Blood culture
  • Bone marrow culture

Treatment

The treatment of enteric fever is mainly Antibiotics. The usually prescribed antibiotics are:

  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Ceftriaxone

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Viral Hepatitis https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/viral-hepatitis https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/viral-hepatitis#respond Mon, 30 Jul 2018 07:56:53 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38411

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Overview

Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the cells of the liver. The normal functions of the liver are disrupted because of this inflammation. Hepatitis may be caused by some various causes, but it is mainly caused by infection by a group of hepatitis viruses. The group consists of the following viruses:

  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Hepatitis D virus
  • Hepatitis E virus

Causes

The causes of spread vary with each different strain of virus:

  1. Hepatitis A virus – spread from ingestion of infected feces (unwashed fruits and vegetables, unclean water)
  2. Hepatitis B virus – spread via Blood, Sexual contact, Pregnancy, Breast feeding.
  3. Hepatitis C virus – spread via Sexual contact, Infected needles
  4. Hepatitis D virus – spread is Parenteral
  5. Hepatitis E virus – spread is waterborne

Symptoms

The severity of the disease symptoms depends on the type of hepatitis virus that has caused the infection. These symptoms may not always be present in an infected patient, but when present, they are the following:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Decreased appetite
  • Nausea
  • Right sided abdominal pain
  • Dark urine
  • Clay-colored stool
  • Painful joints
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)

Diagnosis

After a comprehensive history has been taken, and physical examination of the patient has been done, the following tests are done to diagnose viral hepatitis:

  • Complete blood count
  • Liver function tests
  • Liver ultrasound
  • Liver biopsy
  • Viral antigens
  • Antibodies to viral antigens

Treatment

Treatment of viral hepatitis depends on the type of hepatitis, acute or chronic. Some of the following treatment modalities are used in the treatment of viral hepatitis:

  • Antivirals
  • Interferons
  • Liver transplant

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Ulcerative Colitis https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/ulcerative-colitis https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/ulcerative-colitis#respond Thu, 26 Jul 2018 06:28:49 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=38281

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Overview

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory health condition that affects the inner most lining, i.e. the mucosa of the large bowel and rectum. The disease is a chronic condition, which progresses slowly over time, but it can be managed with proper care and treatment.

Causes

There are no clear precipitating factors of the disease. However, there is evidence of a few of the following things playing a role in the development of the disease:

  • Immune system dysfunction. The disease may occur because the immune system, when fighting off some infection, may also elicit an abnormal response to normal GIT mucosa, and attack the cells of the mucosal lining, leading to the inflammation
  • Heredity. Family history is also seen in some patients with the disease.

Symptoms

In all patients, the signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis may vary according to the degree and location of the inflammation. The symptoms experienced may include:

  • Diarrhea (often with blood and pus)
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Rectal pain
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Urgency to defecate
  • Inability to defecate despite the urgency
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Failure to grow (in children)

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of the disease is usually made after excluding other conditions. Some of the following tests can help the doctor reach a diagnosis:

  • Complete blood count
  • Stool sample
  • Colonoscopy
  • X-ray
  • CT scan

Treatment

Treatment can be either medical or surgical:

Medical therapy:

Surgical therapy:

Surgical elimination of the entire colon and rectum is curative, but that comes with its own set of complications, so it’s not always desired.

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