Typhoid Fever

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Overview

Typhoid fever is also known as enteric fever. It is caused by infection with the bacteria Salmonella typhi. The infection is much more common in third world countries, as compared to the developed countries. Mostly the symptoms resolve within a few weeks after starting treatment, however some patients may develop complications.

Causes

Typhoid fever is caused by infection with the bacteria Salmonella typhi, which can be transmitted by fecal-oral transmission – by consuming food or water contaminated by feces that has the bacteria.

Symptoms

The following are some of the symptoms associated with typhoid fever:

If treatment is delayed, the disease can progress and the patient may develop some of the following complications:

  • Delirium
  • Typhoid state – this is a state in which the patient is lying motionless, exhausted, with his eyes half shut.

Diagnosis

The following tests can be done to confirm the diagnosis of typhoid fever:

  • Stool culture
  • Blood culture
  • Bone marrow culture

Treatment

The treatment of enteric fever is mainly Antibiotics. The usually prescribed antibiotics are:

  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Ceftriaxone
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