Menstruation is the process of expulsion of blood and the endometrial lining of the uterus, for 3-7 days, every month. When an egg is released from a female’s ovary, the uterus prepares for pregnancy by thickening its endometrial lining. If during this time, a woman has sex, and the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, the female becomes pregnant, and the newly formed embryo is implanted into the wall of the uterus. However, most of the time, the woman does not become pregnant, and so the thickened endometrial lining must be shed, along with the egg.
As discussed above, the cause of menstruation is that the woman does not become pregnant, even though the uterus has prepared for it by thickening of the endometrial lining.
Since menstruation is a natural physiological process that should normally occur in all females, it has very mild symptoms:
The diagnosis of menstrual bleeding is only necessary to exclude other dangerous causes of bleeding such as bleeding disorders, postpartum bleeding, vaginal trauma, or malignancies of the reproductive tract. The time duration and frequency of menstrual periods is enough to diagnose that the bleeding is menstrual.
There is no need to treat menstrual bleeding as it is a natural physiological process. However some of the symptoms associated with menstrual bleeding such as cramps, bowel problems, and bloating can be treated with painkillers, and maintaining a healthy diet.