pregnant – HTV https://htv.com.pk Tue, 11 Aug 2020 08:15:23 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Menstruation https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/menstruation https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/menstruation#respond Wed, 18 Jul 2018 07:40:25 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37933

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Overview

Menstruation is the process of expulsion of blood and the endometrial lining of the uterus, for 3-7 days, every month. When an egg is released from a female’s ovary, the uterus prepares for pregnancy by thickening its endometrial lining. If during this time, a woman has sex, and the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, the female becomes pregnant, and the newly formed embryo is implanted into the wall of the uterus. However, most of the time, the woman does not become pregnant, and so the thickened endometrial lining must be shed, along with the egg.

Causes

As discussed above, the cause of menstruation is that the woman does not become pregnant, even though the uterus has prepared for it by thickening of the endometrial lining.

Symptoms

Since menstruation is a natural physiological process that should normally occur in all females, it has very mild symptoms:

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of menstrual bleeding is only necessary to exclude other dangerous causes of bleeding such as bleeding disorders, postpartum bleeding, vaginal trauma, or malignancies of the reproductive tract. The time duration and frequency of menstrual periods is enough to diagnose that the bleeding is menstrual.

Treatment

There is no need to treat menstrual bleeding as it is a natural physiological process. However some of the symptoms associated with menstrual bleeding such as cramps, bowel problems, and bloating can be treated with painkillers, and maintaining a healthy diet.

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5 Pregnancy Complications to Look Out For! https://htv.com.pk/moms/5-pregnancy-complications-look Wed, 15 Nov 2017 07:36:46 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=29492

Pregnancy is undoubtedly the most exciting and scary time for parents, particularly if it is the first time. Both mom and dad are exhilarated at the idea of having their own little one to love and play with. But with this joy comes a lot of fears, particularly that of losing the baby. Have you […]

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Pregnancy is undoubtedly the most exciting and scary time for parents, particularly if it is the first time. Both mom and dad are exhilarated at the idea of having their own little one to love and play with. But with this joy comes a lot of fears, particularly that of losing the baby. Have you recently conceived? Scared of what pregnancy problems you may need to pay attention to? Here are 5 pregnancy complications that you need to keep an eye out for.

1.      Cramps with Heavy Bleeding

Cramping and spotting is common during the first few weeks of pregnancy, and it could be nothing more than implantation bleeding. If the cramping gets worse and bleeding becomes heavy, then you need to take immediate preventive measures. It could be a miscarriage or the onset of one.
If this happens to you and the bleeding does not stop in a few hours, get in touch with your doctor immediately. They will tell you what can be done or if there is any way to save the pregnancy. Keep in mind that if miscarriage occurs this early on, it is an indication of an abnormal pregnancy.

2.      Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is one of those pregnancy complications that is indicated through sharp abdominal pains. This is another thing that needs to be taken into consideration.
5 Pregnancy Complications to Look Out For!
This is an abnormal pregnancy, also called as tubal pregnancy as it occurs in one of the fallopian tube. This pregnancy needs to be terminated as its continuation could burst the tube and cause internal bleeding.

3.      Preeclampsia

Affecting 5% of pregnant women, preeclampsia is when you are diagnosed with high blood pressure and abnormal levels of protein in liver, kidney that comes out in urine. This is mostly diagnosed after 20 weeks of pregnancy and can be serious if not managed in time. Most pregnant women are able to deliver normally with ease if they are treated in time.

4.      Low Amniotic Fluid Supply

The amniotic sac is one where the baby grows. It contains a fluid which provides oxygen and all nutrients to the baby. If this amniotic fluid reduces drastically it can be fatal for the baby. This is another pregnancy complication that can be easily managed so long as it is found out in time. Doctor monitors the mother closely and gives medications to up the amniotic fluid.

5.      Gestational Diabetes

5 Pregnancy Complications to Look Out For!
Even though it’s a serious condition, it can be monitored and controlled. It is mostly discovered somewhere between 24-28 week when glucose screening is done. With diet, exercise and sometime medication, glucose levels can be kept under control and baby be delivered healthy and happy.
So don’t stress and keep these few things in mind to protect yourself from pregnancy complications. Your baby will be with you in no time. Happy motherhood!

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Pregnant women should stay active to avoid depression https://htv.com.pk/news/pregnant-women-stay-active-avoid-depression Mon, 11 Apr 2016 13:09:37 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=18081

To avoid feeling depressed, putting on too much weight, and contracting

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To avoid feeling depressed, putting on too much weight, and contracting gestational diabetes, it is better for pregnant women not to spend too much time sitting, especially in the second trimester, suggest researchers at Warwick University and George Eliott Hospital NHS Trust in the UK.

Their study, which was presented at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Edinburgh in the UK, involved 1,263 pregnant women. The participants had to report on their level of physical activity and emotional well-being in the first trimester of pregnancy and at the end of the second.

The team discovered that the pregnant women with the most depressive symptoms were also those who were the most likely to spend a lot of time sitting. The results took into account such variables as the participants’ BMI and socio-economic status.

The women who spent more time sitting down during the second trimester and did fewer amounts of moderate or vigorous physical activity gained significant amounts of weight between the first and second trimester.

The researchers also noted that these women had a higher blood glucose level in the 28th week of pregnancy and were therefore more at risk of developing gestational diabetes.

“Encouraging women to take breaks from sitting down might be an easier public health policy to implement than increasing their physical activity during pregnancy,” concluded Dr Ponnusamy Saravanan, one of the study’s co-authors.

The researchers noted that the advice of reducing sitting time has the potential to benefit pregnant women’s mental and physical health, as well as their weight and their baby’s health when born, if the approach is applied as a preventative measure from the start of pregnancy.

It is estimated that approximately 10% of women suffer from moderate to severe depression during pregnancy and that of those women, over 25% subsequently suffer from postnatal depression.

Source: AFP Relaxnews

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Pregnant? Eat this to maximise your baby’s brain health https://htv.com.pk/news/pregnant-eat-maximise-babys-brain-health Fri, 29 Jan 2016 12:16:58 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=16253

The health benefits of fish as a rich source of omega-3 are already well known,

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The health benefits of fish as a rich source of omega-3 are already well known, but a new Japanese study has now found further evidence to suggest that ensuring adequate consumption of omega-3 when pregnant can have a beneficial effect on the child’s development, with researchers also believing they have found out why.

The fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3 are both essential nutrients for the body, however in today’s modern world rather than eat a balance of the two our diets normally include an excess of omega-6 and too little omega-3, of which fish is a great source.

Earlier research on the intake of omega oils during pregnancy has already shown the importance of a diet with balanced levels of both of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids for improved brain function in children, however until now the reason why was unknown.

To research further, a team from Tohoku University’s School of Medicine in Japan fed an ‘unbalanced’ diet – rich in omega-6 but low in omage-3 – to pregnant female mice. When the female’s offspring were born the researchers noticed that not only did they have a smaller brain, but the offspring showed abnormal emotional behaviour and higher anxiety levels in adulthood, even though they were fed a nutritionally optimal and omega-6 and omega-3 balanced diet from a young age.

Looking at the results Professor Noriko Osumi, the study’s lead author, now believes this abnormal brain behaviour was caused by the premature ageing of foetal neural stem cells, the cells which produce brain cells, as a result of an imbalance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

The team concluded that an excessive consumption of omega-6 by the mother while pregnant, with too low an intake of omega-3, can have long-lasting effects on the offspring’s mental state, with the results of the study suggesting that more a more balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 is key for expecting mothers to improve their children’s health.

The findings were published in the journal Stem Cells.

An increased intake of omega-3 from regular fish consumption has also been shown to have many other health benefits, with a 2013 study by the the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm finding that the omega-3 fatty acids in fish can reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory disease by 52 percent, and another 2013 study, this time by the Harvard School of Public Health, finding that fish oil supplements, also known as omega-3 fatty acid capsules, could help reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes.

Source: AFP Relaxnews

 

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Pregnant? Low Energy? This Might Be the Cause! https://htv.com.pk/health/pregnant-low-energy-this-might-be-the-cause Mon, 12 Jan 2015 22:54:17 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=4059

Big, bloated, hyperventilating and painfully pale – this is the description of a typical Pakistani pregnant female. Remove ‘big’ from the description above and replace it with average weighing, hyperventilating and pale: this is the description of an average Pakistani female of a young child bearing age.

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Big, bloated, hyperventilating and painfully pale – this is the description of a typical Pakistani pregnant female. Remove ‘big’ from the description above and replace it with average weighing, hyperventilating and pale: this is the description of an average Pakistani female of a young child bearing age.

In a study conducted at the Department of Medicine, at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, 200 patients with signs and symptoms of anaemia were recruited. Of those 200, eighty-nine (89) patients were found to have iron deficiency anemia in various age groups. The results also showed that one of the causes that led to iron deficiency anemia was their dietary habit.

Other causes of iron deficiency could be

  • Inability to absorb iron. This means that you might be taking right amount of iron, but it is not reaching your circulatory system from your intestines.
  • Increased demand. For example in a pregnant woman, iron demand physiologically increases as the baby develops or in a person suddenly travelling in higher altitudes.
  • Excessive blood loss. This could be due to injury, trauma or internal blood loss, as in hemorrhage and heavy menstrual bleeding.

How Does Iron Deficiency Lead to Anemia?

Let’s first define anemia. Anemia is when the body does not have healthy red blood cells. Iron is needed in those blood cells to help carry oxygen throughout the body. However, if there is less iron in red blood cells itself, they become damaged. Due to any of the causes mentioned above, iron is decreased in the blood. The body uses iron stores from the liver to let the body function normally. As these stores are depleted, there is a decrease in haemoglobin (a protein in the blood that helps carry iron). Therefore, a decrease in iron leads to a direct decrease in this protein and further, red blood cells. If there is a decrease of red blood cells, then there is an inefficiency of oxygen transported throughout the body, leading to anemia.

Consequence and Symptoms

Before declaring yourself as anaemic, you should consult your doctor, who will recommend you to take a serum iron test. Blood is drawn from the body using injection and then tested for iron levels. Generally, normal results are

  • Iron: 60-170 mcg/dL
  • TIBC: 240-450 mcg/dL
  • Transferrin saturation: 20-50 percent

However, make sure you ask your doctor for the normal range according to your age and if you are pregnant or not. Low serum iron indicates iron deficiency and anaemia.

Symptoms for iron deficiency include:

  • Brittle nails
  • Frequent infections
  • Sore tongue
  • Pica (craving for inedible items such as dirt or paper)

When iron deficiency gets worst, and all the iron stores in the body are depleted, the haemoglobin levels also fall low and, it is followed by anaemia.

Symptoms for anaemia include:

  • Fatigue (tiredness) – this occurs because the body does not have enough iron for oxygen to bind with. Hence, oxygen cannot be efficiently transferred to all the cells, making the body work harder.
  • Shortness of breath – This occurs as a body mechanism to compensate for the low oxygen delivering throughout your body. When there is not enough oxygen being supplied to the lungs, they start hyperventilating to draw more oxygen into the blood stream.
  • Dizziness or headache – This occurs due to the lack of oxygen going to the brain
  • Cold hands and feet – This is another mechanism of the body to compensate. When there isn’t enough iron in the blood to bind with oxygen, the blood is pushed to the more vital organs to the body and the limbs do not receive much blood therefore, they go cold.
  • Pale skin – The skin turns pale because haemoglobin is a red pigment that gives colour to skin, in anemic conditions it is reduced giving skin pallor.
  • Chest pain – This occurs in very severe cases of chronic anemia. The heart has to pump harder to meet the oxygen supply of the cells and organs as its job is to supply oxygenated blood to all parts. The heart often enlarges, which can lead to heart failure and death.

What Can You Do?

First of all, NEVER make a self-diagnosis of iron deficiency. Since iron supplements are available over the counter, people tend to make such decisions. Always visit your physician in case of any of the symptoms mentioned above. Most of these symptoms are also common to other diseases, and you might miss out on a bigger problem you might have. Always remember: excessive intake or iron can be toxic and fatal in case of very high doses. Make sure your supplement bottle is tightly sealed and kept away from the reach of children.

Sources of Iron

You might have to rely on supplements in case of severe deficiency, taking about 1-3 pills a day, according to your doctor’s prescription. You might need IV transfusions in case of the inability to absorb iron from your intestines (which can cause risk of allergy), or even blood transfusion in very severe cases. You will have to keep taking the supplements for a few months, even though you will feel better soon after your first few doses. This is because you will need to restore depleted sources of iron. Side effects to oral supplements are diarrhea and nausea. Your doctor will advise you.

In case of no iron deficiency or mild deficiency you can restore lost iron, or work on maintaining constant normal iron levels, simply by following a healthy diet plan with iron rich foods. There are no types of iron – heme and non-heme. Heme iron can be found from all meat sources such as: beef, beef or chicken liver, chicken, and fish (sardines). Non-heme iron can be found from plant sources such as lentils (daal), beans, tofu, apricots and spinach.

See your dietitian for a proper diet plan and always visit your nearest physician for any query that you have. Most importantly, know that it is necessary to find out the underlying cause of iron deficiency before treating it.

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