childbirth – HTV https://htv.com.pk Sun, 07 Mar 2021 09:26:14 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Maternal Deaths https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/maternal-deaths https://htv.com.pk/health-a-to-z/maternal-deaths#respond Wed, 18 Jul 2018 09:49:16 +0000 https://htv.com.pk/?p=37987

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Overview

Maternal deaths are a dreadful complication of childbirth. For this reason, it is very important to monitor the process of childbirth very closely in order to either quickly diagnose and treat, or avoid altogether the conditions that cause maternal deaths. Some of the following complications of childbirth can lead to the death of the mother:

Symptoms

It is significant to recognize the signs and symptoms of some conditions that can lead to maternal death, so that early treatment can be started and maternal death can be avoided. The important symptoms of some conditions are discussed below:

  • Postpartum bleeding – expulsion of a large volume of blood from the vagina, up to 24 hours after childbirth, increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, fainting
  • Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy – constantly high blood pressure during pregnancy
  • Postpartum infections – fever, chills, lower abdominal pain, and bad smell from the vagina up to 10 days after childbirth

Causes

There are some complications that can lead to the development of these conditions, some of which are:

  • Postpartum bleeding – trauma to the uterus, bleeding disorders, retention of placental tissue
  • Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy – chronic high blood pressure, obesity, twins pregnancy, age of mother <20 or >40
  • Postpartum infections – retention of placental tissue, lacerations in the vaginal wall due to delivery, delivery in non-sterile conditions

Diagnosis

The diagnosis is made promptly on the basis of the symptoms.

Treatment

Early treatment is necessary in order to prevent maternal death:

  • Postpartum bleeding – oxytocin shot to stop the bleeding, blood transfusion to replace lost blood
  • Hypertensive disorders – monitor the blood pressure closely, and keep it under control for the duration of the pregnancy
  • Postpartum infection – antibiotics, find the underlying cause of infection and fix it

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Roundworm infections and Pakistan’s population problem https://htv.com.pk/news/roundworm-infections-pakistans-population-problem Sat, 26 Dec 2015 05:01:16 +0000 http://htv.com.pk/?p=14172

A study recently published in Science, one of the world’s leading research journals, states that infection with the roundworm known as Ascaris

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A study recently published in Science, one of the world’s leading research journals, states that infection with the roundworm known as Ascaris lumbricoides has the potential to enhance fertility in women.

However, whereas roundworm infections may be beneficial for reproductive life-span, hookworm infections will decrease it. This is an especially intriguing find which sheds new light on the human-parasite relationship overall. Some details of the study are discussed further and its possible impacts on third-world nations where these infections are prevalent are discussed below.

The study was conducted over a 9-year period by obtaining longitudinal data of just under a 1000 women in Bolivia. Nearly all of these women had worm infections. What was intriguing to note in the study, however, is that while the women had an average of 10 children during their life-spans, Ascaris infected women had an average of 12 whereas hookworm infected women decreased it to seven. Scientists attribute these finds to the balance between the immunological responses to the helminths which induce reproductive changes in women.

So how does any of this affect us Pakistanis? Studies conducted in Pakistan show that Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent worm in our country. Children are especially in danger of infestation. Higher incidences of roundworm infections are found in rural areas of Pakistan.

The picture is easy to paint from here on. As of 2014, Pakistan’s annual population growth stands at 1.49%. We are currently the world’s sixth most populous country. What is even more evident is that the highest reproductive rate lies in rural areas of the country, where, coincidentally Ascaris infections are extremely common.

Several factors have been previously noted to affect the increasing birth rate in rural areas. These include lack of education, desire to have a large progeny, early marriages and lesser use of contraceptives. Now, as this study shows, there might be another very important factor at play. Could this roundworm be a silent yet potent reason for our population burden?

Further studies need to be carried out to explore this theory. Overall, studies show that third world countries with a high rural population do indeed have a greater prevalence of worm infestations. One thing is for certain; we as a country need to pay more attention to our rural areas and the people that live there. Research and education are the only way we can overcome our overpopulation crisis.

About the author: Faraz Mahmood Ayyaz is a medical student at Lahore Medical and Dental College, Pakistan. He is a contributor to JPMS Blogs and likes to write about what he thinks is important.

Article source AFP

 

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